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PurposeTo develop and evaluate an automated method to measure the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area in healthy eyes on Heidelberg Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (HS-OCTA). This method is referred to as the modified Kanno-Saitama macro (mKSM) which is an evolution of the Kanno-Saitama macro (KSM) approach.MethodsThis cross-sectional study included 29 eyes of 25 healthy volunteers who underwent HS-OCTA at the macular area twice at the same time. Regardless of the quality of the images, all of them were included. Macular data on the superficial vascular plexus, intermediate capillary plexus (ICP) and deep capillary plexus were processed by mKSM. The FAZ area was measured twice automatically using the mKSM and KSM and twice manually by two independent examiners.ResultsFrom 174 images, KSM could not measure correctly 31% while mKSM could successfully measure all of them. Intrascan intraclass coefficient ranged from 0.948 to 0.993 for manual measurements and was 1 for mKSM method. Despite that the difference between human examiners is smaller than between human examiners and mKSM according to Bland-Altman plots, the scatterplots show a strong correlation between human and automatic measurements. The best results are obtained in ICP.ConclusionsWith mKSM, the automated determination of the FAZ area in HS-OCTA is feasible and less human-dependent. It solves the inability of KSM to measure the FAZ area in suboptimal quality images which are frequent in daily clinical practice. Therefore, the mKSM processing could contribute to our understanding of the three vascular plexuses.  相似文献   
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Neoadjuvant programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade exhibits promising efficacy in patients with mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) colorectal cancer (CRC). However, discrepancies between radiological and histological findings have been reported in the PICC phase II trial (NCT 03926338). Therefore, we strived to discern radiological features associated with pathological complete response (pCR) based on computed tomography (CT) images. Data were obtained from the PICC trial that included 36 tumors from 34 locally advanced dMMR CRC patients, who received neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade for 3 months. Among the 36 tumors, 28 (77.8%) tumors achieved pCR. There were no statistically significant differences in tumor longitudinal diameter, the percentage change in tumor longitudinal diameter from baseline, primary tumor sidedness, clinical stage, extramural venous invasion status, intratumoral calcification, peritumoral fat infiltration, intestinal fistula and tumor necrosis between the pCR and non-pCR tumors. Otherwise, tumors with pCR had smaller posttreatment tumor maximum thickness (median: 10 mm vs 13 mm, P = .004) and higher percentage decrease in tumor maximum thickness from baseline (52.9% vs 21.6%, P = .005) compared to non-pCR tumors. Additionally, a higher proportion of the absence of vascular sign (P = .003, odds ratio [OR] = 25.870 [95% CI, 1.357-493.110]), nodular sign (P < .001, OR = 189.000 [95% CI, 10.464-3413.803]) and extramural enhancement sign (P = .003, OR = 21.667 [2.848-164.830]) was observed in tumors with pCR. In conclusion, these CT-defined radiological features may have the potential to serve as valuable tools for clinicians in identifying patients who have achieved pCR after neoadjuvant PD-1 blockade, particularly in individuals who are willing to adopt a watch-and-wait strategy.  相似文献   
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《Clinical neurophysiology》2021,132(10):2357-2364
ObjectivesTo investigate the subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to electrical stimulation of either muscle or cutaneous afferents.MethodsSEPs were recorded in 6 patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD) who underwent electrode implantation in the pedunculopontine (PPTg) nucleus area. We compared SEPs recorded from the scalp and from the intracranial electrode contacts to electrical stimuli applied to: 1) median nerve at the wrist, 2) abductor pollicis brevis motor point, and 3) distal phalanx of the thumb. Also the high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) were analysed.ResultsAfter median nerve and pure cutaneous (distant phalanx of the thumb) stimulation, a P1-N1 complex was recorded by the intracranial lead, while the scalp electrodes recorded the short-latency far-field responses (P14 and N18). On the contrary, motor point stimulation did not evoke any low-frequency component in the PPTg traces, nor the N18 potential on the scalp. HFOs were recorded to stimulation of all modalities by the PPTg electrode contacts.ConclusionsStimulus processing within the cuneate nucleus depends on modality, since only the cutaneous input activates the complex intranuclear network possibly generating the scalp N18 potential.SignificanceOur results shed light on the subcortical processing of the somatosensory input of different modalities.  相似文献   
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ObjectiveEach pulmonary segment is an anatomical and functional unit. However, it is fundamentally difficult to precisely distinguish every pulmonary segment using the conventional pulmonary intersegmental planes from computed tomography images. Building arteriopulmonary segments is likely to be an effective way to identify pulmonary segments.MethodsThe thoracic computed tomography images of 40 patients were collected. The anatomic structures of interest were extracted in the transverse, sagittal, and coronal planes using the semi-automated segmentation tools provided by Amira software. The intrapulmonary vessels were subsequently segmented and reconstructed. The distributions of the pulmonary arteries, veins, and bronchi were observed. In patients with pulmonary masses, the mass was also reconstructed.ResultsThe three-dimensional reconstructed images showed the branches of the pulmonary artery ramified up to their eighth order covering the entire lung as well as evident intersegmental gaps without pulmonary arteries. The segmental artery was closely accompanied by the segmental bronchi in 486 pulmonary segments (90% of total number of segments). The size and spatial location of the pulmonary mass within a pulmonary segment were also clearly visible.ConclusionsDemarcation of arteriopulmonary segments can be used to precisely distinguish every pulmonary segment and provide its detailed anatomical structure before pulmonary segmentectomy.  相似文献   
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目的 运用CT区分脾脏血管性病变与淋巴瘤。方法 回顾性分析20例经手术、穿刺病理学检查证实的脾脏病变的发病年龄、性别、脾脏指数、病变大小、数目、有无液化、钙化、强化幅度、强化方式等特征,并进行统计学分析。结果 20例脾脏病变中,11例血管性病变(6例海绵状血管瘤,3例窦岸细胞血管瘤,2例硬化性血管瘤样结节性转化),9例淋巴瘤;两组间发病年龄、病变大小、数目、有无液化、钙化等差异无统计学意义;两组间脾脏指数、动脉期强化幅度差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。5例海绵状血管瘤呈不均匀性强化,1例呈渐进性填充式强化,2例窦岸细胞血管瘤呈“雀斑征”,1例硬化性血管瘤样结节性转化呈“辐轮征”;9例淋巴瘤实质部分均呈均匀、轻中度强化。结论 脾脏血管性病变与淋巴瘤CT表现不同,CT有助于明确诊断。  相似文献   
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阿尔茨海默病是一种进行性且不可逆转的神经系统疾病,由于视网膜和中枢神经系统有相似的胚胎起源和生理特征,眼科检查可提供简单无创的诊断方法。光学相干断层扫描技术(OCT)能够精确地测量视网膜各个组织层面的厚度,以评估视网膜的退行性改变,光学相干断层扫描血管成像(OCTA)可以提供高分辨率三维成像,从而更直观地检测视网膜血管的变化,间接地反映脑神经元和血管的病理特征。就OCT测量视网膜厚度及OCTA测量视网膜血流变化在阿尔茨海默病诊断中的研究进展进行综述。  相似文献   
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PurposeTo investigate the safety and efficacy of an aqueous polyethylene glycol-based liquid embolic agent, Embrace Hydrogel Embolic System (HES), in the treatment of benign and malignant hypervascular tumors.Materials and MethodsA prospective, single-arm, multicenter study included 8 patients, 5 males and 3 females, with a median age of 58.5 years (30–85 years), who underwent embolization in 8 tumors between October 2019 and May 2020. Technical success was defined as successful delivery of HES to the index vessel, with disappearance of >90% of the targeted vascular enhancement or, for portal vein embolization, occlusion of the portal branches to the liver segments for future resection. The volume of HES administered, ease of use (5 point Likert scale), administration time, and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Evaluation was performed at 7, 30, and 90 days via clinical assessment and blood testing, and follow-up imaging was performed at 30 days.ResultsEight patients were enrolled, and 10 embolizations were performed in 8 lesions. Tumors included hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 4), renal angiomyolipoma (n = 3), and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n = 1). Technical success was 100%, and the average ease of use was 3.3 ± 1.0 SD. The HES delivery time was 1–28 minutes (median, 16.5 minutes), and the HES volume injected was 0.4–4.0 mL (median, 1.3 mL). All patients reached 30-day follow-up with imaging, and 6 patients reached 90-day follow-up. There were 3 serious AEs in 2 patients that were unrelated to the embolic agent.ConclusionHES resulted in a 100% embolization technical success rate. The product ease of use was acceptable, and no target vessel recanalization was noted on follow-up imaging at 30 days.  相似文献   
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Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are becoming popular as a means of delivering therapeutics, including those based on nucleic acids and mRNA. The mRNA-based coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines are perfect examples to highlight the role played by drug delivery systems in advancing human health. The fundamentals of LNPs for the delivery of nucleic acid- and mRNA-based therapeutics, are well established. Thus, future research on LNPs will focus on addressing the following: expanding the scope of drug delivery to different constituents of the human body, expanding the number of diseases that can be targeted, and studying the change in the pharmacokinetics of LNPs under physiological and pathological conditions. This review article provides an overview of recent advances aimed at expanding the application of LNPs, focusing on the pharmacokinetics and advantages of LNPs. In addition, analytical techniques, library construction and screening, rational design, active targeting, and applicability to gene editing therapy have also been discussed.  相似文献   
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