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《台湾医志》2022,121(12):2490-2500
Background/PurposeOrthokeratology (Ortho-K), atropine eye drops and combined atropine with Ortho-K are proven to be effective ways to prevent myopic progression in many studies, but there is scarce evidence regarding the comparative efficacy of different dosages of atropine,Ortho-K, and combined atropine with Ortho-K for childhood myopia.MethodsWe performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to assess the relative efficacy of the aforementioned interventions for myopic progression; moreover, we calculated the surface under cumulative ranking area (SUCRA) to determine the relative ranking of treatments.ResultsWe identified 19 randomized controlled trials (3435 patients). NMA revealed that 0.01%–1% atropine, Ortho-K, and 0.01% atropine combined with Ortho-K inhibited axial elongation (AL) over one year. For refractive change, SUCRA analysis revealed that the hierarchy was high-dose (0.5%–1%), moderate-dose (0.1%–0.25%), and low-dose (0.01%–0.05%) atropine. Regarding AL, SUCRA analysis revealed the following hierarchy: Ortho-K combined with 0.01% atropine, high-dose atropine, moderate-dose atropine, Ortho-K, and low-dose atropine.ConclusionIn conclusion, we found that atropine (0.01%–1%), Ortho-K, and 0.01% atropine combined with Ortho-K could significantly slow down myopia progression. The atropine efficacy followed a dose-related pattern; moreover, Ortho-K and low-dose atropine showed similar efficacy. There was a synergistic effect of using 0.01% atropine combined with Ortho-K, and it showed comparable efficacy to that of high-dose atropine.  相似文献   
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Discrimination towards individuals with disabilities is problematic within nursing. There have been calls to increase diversity in nursing and this includes embracing nurses with disabilities. Increasing diversity in nursing requires increasing diversity among nursing students; in this way, nurse educators are gatekeepers to the profession. Clinical education is a crucial element of nursing education, yet there have been very few studies related to the clinical education of nursing students with disabilities. There have been no studies of attitudes of acute care nurse preceptors toward students with disabilities in the United States. This gap is important as the majority of clinical experiences occur in the acute care environment. Utilizing a focused ethnography, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 acute care nurses with at least two years’ experience precepting students. While positive feelings about nursing students with disabilities were shared, thoughts and behavioral intentions remained negative. Six themes emerged: safety, barriers, otherness, communicating to meet needs, disclosure, and student versus colleague. Attitudinal barriers are the primary barriers faced by individuals with disabilities in becoming and practicing as nurses. Nurses in practice and education must embrace more inclusive attitudes towards individuals with disabilities.  相似文献   
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《Pancreatology》2022,22(8):1175-1180
BackgroundHepatic steatosis has been described as a common finding in adults following total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) but it is unknown if this occurs in children and adolescents.ObjectivesTo define the frequency of post-TPIAT hepatic steatosis in a sample of children and adolescents and to identify clinical predictors of incident steatosis post-TPIAT.MethodsIn this prospective study, consecutive participants at least 1-month post-TPIAT underwent a liver MRI with proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and blood draw at our pediatric academic medical center between April 2021 and January 2022. Comparison clinical pre-TPIAT liver MRI or ultrasound and insulin use and graft function data were extracted from the medical record. T-tests were used for the comparison of means across continuous variables between participants with and without post-TPIAT steatosis.ResultsA total of 20 participants (mean: 13 ± 4 years; 12 female) were evaluated. Mean liver PDFF at research MRI was 7.4 ± 6.2% (range: 2–25%). Seven participants (35%) had categorical hepatic steatosis (PDFF>5%) post-TPIAT, five of whom had pre-TPIAT steatosis, reflecting a 13% (2/15; 95% CI: 2–40%) incidence of post-TPIAT steatosis. Participant characteristics were not significantly different between subgroups with and without post-TPIAT steatosis. Mean PDFF at research MRI was not different between graft function subgroups (7.5% optimal/good vs. 7.3% marginal/failure; p = .96).ConclusionOur study shows a moderate prevalence but low incidence of hepatic steatosis in a small sample of children and adolescents post-TPIAT. This study raises questions about a causal relationship between TPIAT and hepatic steatosis.  相似文献   
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目的探讨神经内镜辅助下经鼻蝶入路切除鞍区肿瘤的方法和优势。方法回顾性分析30例鞍区肿瘤病人的临床资料,垂体腺瘤26例(其中无功能垂体腺瘤6例、泌乳素瘤16例、垂体生长激素腺瘤4例),拉克囊肿1例,胆脂瘤1例,脑膜瘤1例,颅咽管瘤1例。采用神经内镜辅助下经鼻蝶入路手术切除肿瘤。结果肿瘤全切27例,部分切除3例。术后3例发生脑脊液鼻漏,经腰大池持续引流后痊愈。无死亡病例。随访3~6个月,病人恢复良好。结论在神经内镜辅助下经鼻蝶入路治疗鞍区肿瘤,较单纯的显微镜手术治疗创伤更小,肿瘤全切率更高。  相似文献   
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David Marr's three-level method for completely understanding a cognitive system and the importance he attaches to the computational level are so familiar as to scarcely need repeating. Fewer seem to recognize that Marr defends his famous method by criticizing the “reductionistic approach.” This sets up a more interesting relationship between Marr and reductionism than is usually acknowledged. I argue that Marr was correct in his criticism of the reductionists of his time—they were only describing (cellular activity), not explaining (cognitive functions). But a careful metascientific account of reductionistic neuroscience over the past two decades reveals that Marr's criticisms no longer have force. Contemporary neuroscience now explains cognition directly, although in a fashion—causal-mechanistically—quite different than Marr recommended. So while Marr was correct to reject the reductionism of his day and offer an alternative method for genuinely explaining cognition, contemporary cognitive scientists now owe us a new defense of Marr's famous method and the advantages of its explanations over the type now pursued successfully in current reductionist neuroscience. There are familiar reasons for thinking that this debt will not be paid easily.  相似文献   
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目的:构建基于SERVQUAL模型的医养结合型养老机构卫生服务质量评价指标体系。方法:围绕医养结合型养老机构卫生服务的概念、特性、内涵、内容等,采用文献研究法、半结构式访谈法、Delphi—AHP法等定性与定量相结合的研究方法,构建指标体系并确定指标权重。结果:构建了具有7个一级指标,27个二级指标和77个三级指标的养老机构卫生服务质量评价指标体系。指标体系三轮咨询专家权威系数Cr均高于0.84,专家综合权威性系数均高于0.83;总体专家协调系数Kendall W第一、二轮为0.309,第三轮为0.706,且均通过显著性检验;内容效度指数I-CVI介于0.90~1.00之间,S-CVI为0.94,kappa值均高于0.74;信度系数Cronbachα总体为0.972,各维度Cronbachα系数在0.792~0.921之间。评价指标体系具有较好的稳定性、可靠性和一致性。结论:本研究建立的评价指标体系有利于医养结合型养老机构全面建立贴近老年人卫生服务需求的内设医疗机构,改善机构内卫生服务质量。在对指标体系进行应用时,可转化为机构中老年人对各指标项目的感受(P)与期望(E),以两者的差值(P-E)代表机构的卫生服务质量。根据专家赋权结果,应重点加强医养结合养老机构对可靠性、有效性、经济性等指标项目的建设。  相似文献   
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