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BackgroundAnteriorly-loaded walking is common in many occupations and may increase fall risk. Dynamic gait stability, defined by the Feasible Stability Region (FSR) theory, quantifies the kinematic relationship between the body’s center of mass (COM) and base of support (BOS). FSR-based dynamic gait stability has been used to evaluate the fall risk.Research questionHow does front load carriage affect dynamic gait stability, step length, and trunk angle among young adults during treadmill walking?MethodsIn this between-subject design study, 30 healthy young adults were evenly randomized into three load groups (0%, 10%, or 20% of body weight). Participants carried their assigned load while walking on a treadmill at a speed of 1.2 m/s. Body kinematics were collected during treadmill walking. Dynamic gait stability (the primary variable) was calculated for two gait events: touchdown and liftoff. Step length and trunk angle were measured as secondary variables. One-way analysis of variance was conducted to detect any group-related differences for all variables. Post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni correction was performed when main group differences were found.ResultsNo significant differences but medium to large effect sizes were found between groups for dynamic gait stability at touchdown (p = 0.194, η2 = 0.114) and liftoff (p = 0.122, η2 = 0.139). Trunk angle significantly increased (indicating backward lean) with the front load at touchdown (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.648) and liftoff (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.543). No significant between-group difference was found related to the step length (p = 0.344, η2 = 0.076).SignificanceCarrying a front load during walking significantly alters the trunk orientation and may change the COM-BOS kinematic relationship and, therefore, fall risk. The findings could inform the design of future studies focusing on the impact of anterior load carriage on fall risk during different locomotion.  相似文献   
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While use of large heads in total hip arthroplasty (THA) continues to grow, concerns have been raised regarding anterior hip pain resulting from impingement of the prosthetic head against soft-tissues like the iliopsoas. To address these concerns, a new anatomically contoured head (ACH) was developed. In this study cadaver tests were utilized to show that iliopsoas impingement/tenting caused by conventional heads is significantly relieved with the more rounded and reduced distal profile of the ACH. Thus, the ACH implant may be able to decrease the risk of soft-tissue impingement with conventional heads, particularly in the smaller hip.  相似文献   
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The patellar ligament (PL) is an epiphyseal ligament and is part of the extensor complex of the knee. The ligament has gained attention due to its clinical relevance to autograft and tendinopathy. A variety of anatomical variations of the PL such as aplasia, numerical variations, and vascularity are being reported recently by clinicians and anatomists. The aim of this literature was to review the available literature to provide a consensus regarding anatomic variations of the PL, neurovasculature surrounding the PL, histology of the PL, and various aspects of PL measurements with relevance to the surgical considerations and sex and age-related differences. A narrative review of the patellar ligament was performed by conducting a detailed literature search and review of relevant articles. A total of 90 articles on the patellar ligament were included and were categorized into studies based on anatomical variations, neurovasculature, morphometrics, microanatomy, sex and age-related difference, and ACL reconstruction. The anatomical variations and morphometrics of the PL were found to correlate with the frequency of strain injuries, tendinopathy, and efficacy of the PL autograft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The sex differences in PL measurements and the effect of estrogen on collagen synthesis explained a higher incidence of patellar tendinopathy in women. An awareness of its variations enables careful selection of surgical incisions, thereby avoiding complications related to nerve injury. Accurate knowledge of the PL microanatomy assists in understanding the mechanism of ligament degeneration, rupture, autograft harvesting, and ligamentization results.  相似文献   
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