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对间歇性禁食法的概念、方法及形式、历史发展以及在糖尿病前期及糖尿病病人中的应用效果等进行介绍,阐述间歇性禁食法研究现状,总结间歇性禁食法对糖尿病前期和糖尿病病人的有益影响。  相似文献   
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Background & aimsTo determine the trends of self-reported non-adherence rates among adults taking Type 2 medicines (T2D) medicines between 2017 and 2019 and to identify the patterns for the frequently reported reasons for non-adherence in the United States.Methods & resultsData from the National Health and Wellness Survey, a self-administered, internet-based cross-sectional survey of US adults from 2017 to 2019 was used. Non-adherence was measured using the self-reported Medication Adherence Reasons Scale (MAR-Scale). Frequencies were used to identify the reasons for non-adherence for insulin and non-insulin therapies for T2D.Data were obtained from 2983 respondents in 2017, 5416 in 2018, and 5268 in 2019. Based on the MAR-Scale, the self-reported medication non-adherence rate was 25% in 2017, 21% in 2018, and 27% in 2019. The most common reason for non-adherence across all the three years was simple forgetfulness, yet patients reported the lowest mean number of days missing medication for that reason. Though less frequently reported, non-adherence lasted longer when patient did not know how to take their medicines, cost was a reason, or had concerns about the long term effects of the medicines.ConclusionsWith no significant improvement in adherence with T2D medicines over time, regardless of better awareness and extensive diabetes education, focus should be on individualized non-adherence reasons-based interventions.  相似文献   
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Background and aimTo evaluate the effectiveness of structured exercise appropriate the circadian rhythm in terms of blood sample test (BST), functionality and quality of life (QoL) in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Methods and resultsThis was a parallel-group, single-blind, crossover study. Thirty individuals with type 2 diabetes aged 35–65 years were enrolled in the study and allocated into 2 groups as the Morning Chronotype (MC) Group (n = 15) and the Evening Chronotype (EC) Group (n = 15) using Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire which was used to determine the chronotypes. Participants were evaluated in terms of BST, functionality and QoL at the beginning of the study (T0), at 6 (T1), 12 (T2), and 18 (T3) weeks after the study started. A structured exercise program for 3 days a week over 6 weeks was applied in accordance with the chronotypes (T1-T2) and cross-controlled for the chronotypes (T2-T3). Significant differences were found in favor of the exercise given at the appropriate time for the chronotype in all parameters in both groups within groups (T0-T1-T2-T3) (p < 0.05). In the time1group interactions, exercise in accordance with the appropriate chronotype in both groups provided the highest statistical improvement in all parameters (p < 0.05).ConclusionIt was concluded that structured exercise performed at the appropriate time for chronotype improves HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, HDL-LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, functionality and quality of life in type 2 diabetes. This variation in blood values was observed to reflect the quantitative effects of exercise administered according to the circadian rhythm in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04427488). The protocol of the study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04427488).  相似文献   
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Transient stress hyperglycemia in the setting of acute myocardial infarction is a frequent phenomenon. Its transient nature should not dissuade the clinician from management of elevated blood glucose in a patient after an ST-elevation myocardial infarction. This case presents an adult patient after an ST-elevation myocardial infarction with transient stress hyperglycemia and the evidence used to identify optimal pharmacologic management and secondary prevention.  相似文献   
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ObjectiveTo examine the characteristics and effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnancy and the postpartum period to prevent Type 2 diabetes.Data SourcesWe conducted searches in seven databases, including Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid Embase, Cochrane Central, Web of Science, Ovid PsycInfo, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses for articles published from inception to January 2021.Study SelectionWe included articles on controlled intervention studies in which researchers evaluated a lifestyle intervention provided during pregnancy and the postpartum period for women with or at risk for GDM that were published in English.Data ExtractionTwelve articles that were reports of seven studies met the inclusion criteria. In some cases, more than one article was selected from the same study. For example, articles reported different outcomes from the same study. We extracted data with the use of a data collection form and compared and synthesized data on study design, purpose, sample, intervention characteristics, recruitment and retention, and outcomes.Data SynthesisAll seven studies focused on weight management and/or healthy lifestyle behaviors (diet and physical activity). Outcomes included glucose regulation, weight, lifestyle behaviors, and knowledge. The interventions varied in duration/dosage, strategies, and modes of delivery. In four studies, researchers reported interventions that had significant effects on improving glucose regulation and/or weight change. Some characteristics from the four effective interventions included goal setting, individualized care, and good retention rates. In the other three studies, limitations included low rates of participant retention, lack of personalized interventions, and limited population diversity or lack of culturally sensitive care.ConclusionLifestyle interventions provided during and after pregnancy to reduce the risk associated with GDM have the potential to improve outcomes. Health care counseling to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors related to the prevention of Type 2 diabetes is needed at different stages of maternity care for women with GDM. Additional high-quality studies are needed to address the limitations of current studies.  相似文献   
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《Value in health》2022,25(7):1235-1252
ObjectivesThe incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus is increasing every year requiring substantial expenditure on treatment and complications. A systematic review was conducted on the cost-effectiveness of insulin formulations, including ultralong-, long-, or intermediate-acting insulin, and their biosimilar insulin equivalents.MethodsMEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HTA, and NHS EED were searched from inception to June 11, 2021. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses were included if insulin formulations in adults (≥ 16 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus were evaluated. Two reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts, and full-text articles, extracted study data, and appraised their quality using the Drummond 10-item checklist. Costs were converted to 2020 US dollars adjusting for inflation and purchasing power parity across currencies.ResultsA total of 27 studies were included. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged widely across the studies. All pairwise comparisons (11 of 11, 100%) found that ultralong-acting insulin was cost-effective compared with other long-acting insulins, including a long-acting biosimilar. Most pairwise comparisons (24 of 27, 89%) concluded that long-acting insulin was cost-effective compared with intermediate-acting insulin. Few studies compared long-acting insulins with one another.ConclusionsLong-acting insulin may be cost-effective compared with intermediate-acting insulin. Future studies should directly compare biosimilar options and long-acting insulin options and evaluate the long-term consequences of ultralong-acting insulins.  相似文献   
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