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1.
Drosophila has been increasingly used as a model to study hemolymph clotting. Proteomics and bioinformatics identified candidate clotting-factors, several of which were tested using genetics. Mutants and lines with reduced expression of clotting-factors show subtle effects after wounding, indicating that sealing wounds may rely on redundant mechanisms. More striking effects are observed after infection, in particular when a natural infection model involving entomopathogenic nematodes is used. When translated into mammalian models these results reveal that mammalian blood clots serve a similar immune function, thus providing a new example of the usefulness of studying invertebrate models.  相似文献   
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BackgroundLong-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and retinoic acid (RA) are abundant in the growth plates (GPs) of long bones; however, their roles have not been elucidated. We observed that epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP/FABP5) with a high affinity for both LCFAs and RA is exclusively expressed in the septoclasts located at the chondro-osseous junction (COJ) of the GP.HighlightsE-FABP expressed in septoclasts is involved in both LCFA metabolism and RA signaling as an intracellular transporter of both LCFAs and RA. Septoclasts with shortened cytoplasmic processes are associated with cartilage resorptive activity downregulation because of E-FABP deficiency or excess or deficiency of RA. In ontogeny, the septoclasts are differentiated from the pericytes and involved in the resorption of the uncalcified matrix of the cartilage templates in endochondral ossification.ConclusionSeptoclasts originate from pericytes and express E-FABP to play crucial roles in uncalcified matrix resorption by LCFA metabolism and RA signaling during endochondral ossification.  相似文献   
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目的观察miR-202对3T3-L1前脂肪细胞分化的影响及可能的机制。方法通过慢病毒感染构建稳定表达AMO-miR-202和乱序对照miRNA细胞系,随后诱导分化。至分化的第9天,油红O染色观察细胞内脂滴的情况;RT-PCR检测过氧化物酶体激活增殖受体γ2(PPARγ2)和a P2的基因表达;Western blot检测PPARγ2、a P2和miR-202靶基因PPARγ辅助活化因子1β(PGC1β)蛋白表达。结果经293T细胞慢病毒包装AMO-miR-202、乱序对照miRNA,荧光显微镜下可见约80%~90%荧光细胞;将上述2组病毒液分别感染3T3-L1前脂肪细胞后,可见约70%~80%荧光细胞。AMO-miR-202组细胞内脂滴及PPARγ2和a P2的mRNA表达显著低于乱序对照组和对照组(P<0.05)。与乱序对照组和对照组相比,AMO-miR-202组PGC1β蛋白表达显著增加(P<0.05),PPARγ2和a P2蛋白表达显著降低(P<0.01),而乱序对照组和脂肪细胞组上述指标无明显差异。结论 miR-202可能通过抑制PGC1β、提高PPARγ2和a P2的表达促进3T3-L1前脂肪细胞分化。  相似文献   
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Weight loss is an important nonmotor symptom associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the cellular factors responsible for PD‐induced weight loss remain unclear. Because the sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in lipid metabolism and fat cell differentiation, this study investigates whether PD‐induced changes to this system are associated with weight loss in a rat model of PD. Body weight and food intake were measured in control and PD‐model rats. After 10 weeks, retroperitoneal white adipose tissues (RWAT) were removed and weighed. Markers of the sympathetic nervous system were measured in the brainstem dorsal medulla and RWAT. Free fat acids (FFA), triglycerides (TG), adipocyte differentiation‐related genes, and lipolysis‐related molecules in the RWAT and serum were analyzed. Differences in body weight and food intake were insignificant in PD‐model rats and control rats; however, relative RWAT weight and adipocyte surface area were significantly reduced in the PD group. Changes in markers of the sympathetic nervous system were observed in the brainstem dorsal medulla and RWAT of PD rats. Decreased mRNA expression levels of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, decreased TG levels in RWAT, increased FFA in RWAT, and increased lipolysis‐related molecules in RWAT and serum FFA were observed in PD rats. This study demonstrates that degenerated dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system correlate with increases in sympathetic nervous system function, resulting in lipolysis and inhibition of fat cell differentiation. These factors ultimately result in the decrease of RWAT in PD‐model rats. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
7.
We describe a rare case of gliosarcoma with primitive neuroectodermal, osseous, cartilage and adipocyte differentiation. A 57-year-old man experienced a month history of headache, nausea and vomiting. Worse yet, the headache has become more severe for the past 6 days. Magnetic resonance (MR) images disclosed a lesion with operative indications located in the right frontal lobe. Then the tumor was macroscopically totally removed. Histologically, the tumor showed two kinds of components. One kind of the tumor cells appeared typical astrocytic tumor cells with anaplastic appearance. The other kind of the tumor cells appeared sheets of small round hyperchromatic cells, which presented a kind of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET)-like structure. These sheets of small round cells were surrounded by a large number of relative-sparse-spindle cells. Multiple separate distinct areas of adipose tissue, osteoid matrix laid down and cartilage tissue were also identified. Immunohistochemically, a portion of typical astrocytic tumor cells and some small round hyperchromatic cells showed GFAP positivity. Small round hyperchromatic cells were positive for S-100, Fli-1, Nestin, MAP-2 and Syn. A large amount of relative sparse spindle cells (sarcomatous areas) were positive for vimentin. In addition, reticulin staining demonstrated expression of reticular fibers in relative-sparse-spindle cells areas but not in the astrocytic tumor cells and small round hyperchromatic cells areas. Molecular cytogenetic analyses demonstrated PTEN allele loss and no evidence of amplification of EGFR in both the astrocytic tumor cells, PNET-like structure and sparse spindle cells areas. These data suggest that this tumor was a gliosarcoma with primitive neuroectodermal, osseous, cartilage and adipocyte differentiation. To our knowledge, this is a rare gliosarcoma , reporting our additional new case would add to the better understanding of this tumor.  相似文献   
8.
Recent studies suggest a relationship between intestinal microbiota and metabolic syndromes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To clarify this issue, we assessed the effects of bacterial cell wall components on adiponectin, leptin and resistin secretion from rat visceral adipocytes in vitro. We also measured the relative population of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in fecal microbiota and the amount of fecal mucin as an intestinal barrier function, when mice were fed a high-fat diet. In the present study, we demonstrated that bacterial cell wall components affect the secretion of adipokines, depending on the presence of antigens from gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide markedly inhibited adiponectin, leptin, and resistin secretion, whereas peptidoglycan increased adiponectin secretion and decreased resistin secretion in vitro. In vivo experiments showed that the high-fat diet increased the population of Firmicutes and decreased that of Bacteroidetes. In contrast, the high-fat diet downregulated the stool output and fecal mucin content. These results demonstrate that bacterial cell wall components affect the onset of metabolic syndromes by mediating the secretion of adipokines from visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, we believe that metabolic endotoxemia is not due to the increasing dominance of gram-negative bacteria, Bacteroidetes, but due to the depression of intestinal barrier function.  相似文献   
9.
The metabolic syndrome refers to insulin resistance and its associated cluster of related cardiovascular metabolic risk factors including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity. Although many hypotheses and facts have been proposed to explain the interaction between genetic and environmental causes of this syndrome, the primary etiology of the metabolic syndrome is adipose tissue dysregulation. Firstly, the thrifty genotype and phenotype hypothesis may explain the endemic increase in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in developing countries and elucidates the congenital susceptibility and environmental triggering of the metabolic syndrome. Secondly, over-nutrition leads to fatty acid (FA) accumulation in adipocytes and to an overflow to ectopic fat storage organs. This causes functional changes in adipocytes shifting the intra-cellular metabolic pathway toward insulin resistance. Thirdly, obese subjects exhibit increased fat cell size and over-secretion of biologic adipocytokines. Fourthly, failure to adequately develop adipose tissue mass, as seen in lipodystrophy cases, causes severe insulin resistance and diabetes. Lastly, similar to human type 2 diabetes, Psammonys obesus, a desert rat which feeds mainly on low-calorie vegetation, develops the metabolic syndrome when given a diet of calorie rich food. The above evidence indicates adipocyte dysregulation and secretion of FA as well as certain molecules from overloaded adipocytes/adipokines contribute to the pathogenesis of impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, a pro-inflammatory state and promote progression of atherosclerosis. The metabolic syndrome is a modern disease resulting adipocyte dysmetabolism resulting from the paradox of the slow human evolution combined with rapid environmental changes.  相似文献   
10.
Although it has been reported that oxytocin stimulates lipolysis in adipocytes, changes in the expression of oxytocin receptor (OTR) mRNA in adipogenesis are still unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of OTR mRNA during adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in adipocytes. OTR mRNA was highly expressed in adipocytes prepared from mouse adipose tissues compared to stromal‐vascular cells. OTR mRNA expression was increased during the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3‐L1 cells. OTR expression levels were higher in subcutaneous and epididymal adipose tissues of 14‐week‐old male mice compared to 7‐week‐old male mice. Levels of OTR mRNA expression were higher in adipose tissues at four different sites of mice fed a high‐fat diet than in those of mice fed a normal diet. The OTR expression level was also increased by refeeding for 4 h after fasting for 16 h. Oxytocin significantly induced lipolysis in 3T3‐L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, a new regulatory mechanism is demonstrated for oxytocin to control the differentiation and fat accumulation in adipocytes via activation of OTR as a part of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adipose axis.  相似文献   
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