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1.
PurposeAccording to the social determinants of health framework, income inequality is a potential risk factor for adverse mental health. However, few studies have explored the mechanisms suspected to mediate this relationship. The current study addresses this gap through a mediation analysis to determine if social support and community engagement act as mediators linking neighbourhood income inequality to maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms within a cohort of new mothers living in the City of Calgary, Canada.MethodsData collected at three years postpartum from mothers belonging to the All Our Families (AOF) cohort were used in the current study. Maternal data were collected between 2012 and 2015 and linked to neighbourhood socioeconomic data from the 2006 Canadian Census. Income inequality was measured using Gini coefficients derived from 2006 after-tax census data. Generalized structural equation models were used to quantify the associations between income inequality and mental health symptoms, and to assess the potential direct and indirect mediating effects of maternal social support and community engagement.ResultsIncome inequality was not significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms (β = 0.32, 95%CI = −0.067, 0.70), anxiety symptoms (β = 0.11, 95%CI = −0.39, 0.60), or lower social support. Income inequality was not associated with community engagement. For the depression models, higher social support was significantly associated with lower depressive symptoms (β = −0.13, 95%CI = −0.15, −0.097), while community engagement was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms (β = 0.059, 95%CI = −0.15, 0.27). Similarly, for the anxiety models, lower anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with higher levels of social support (β = −0.17, 95%CI = −0.20, −0.13) but not with higher levels of community engagement (β = 0.14, 95%CI = −0.14, 0.41).ConclusionThe current study did not find clear evidence for social support or community engagement mediating the relationship between neighbourhood income inequality and maternal mental health. Future investigations should employ a broader longitudinal approach to capture changes in income inequality, potential mediators, and mental health symptomatology over time.  相似文献   
2.
《Vaccine》2022,40(23):3236-3243
BackgroundInfections can have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Therefore, vaccinations are of immense importance. If vaccination willingness is to be increased, possible influencing factors should be identified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the status of active immunisation in MS patients in association with sociodemographic, clinical-neurological, psychopathological and personality variables using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.MethodFour hundred and four MS patients from two German neurological hospitals were examined for their vaccination attitudes, in detail, the general willingness to vaccinate and the current vaccination status of mumps, measles and rubella (MMR) as well as tetanus and influenza. We also looked at the current level of disability in relation to the current vaccination status, as well as possible associated personality and psychopathological variables.ResultsPatients with a complete MMR vaccination status were significantly younger and those with a complete influenza vaccination status were significantly older than those with related incomplete vaccination status. Tetanus vaccination status completeness did not differ depending on age and did not show substantial association with personality scores. However, influenza vaccination completeness was associated with differences in personality and psychopathological variables; extraversion, openness, novelty seeking, harm avoidance and anxiety. A reported general vaccination willingness was significantly correlated with the current completeness of tetanus and influenza vaccinations. Novelty seeking, persistence, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism were found associated with an increased vaccination willingness. Anxiety and depression were not related to general vaccination willingness.ConclusionsNo specific personality trait could be defined on its own in relation to general vaccination willingness or complete vaccination status. Younger patients should be made more aware of influenza vaccination. Reasons for rather low vaccination rates need to be further investigated.  相似文献   
3.
BackgroundThe estimated number of people living with anxiety disorders worldwide is around 264 million and is estimated to have worsened with the recent pandemic of COVID-19. Acupuncture has shown to have excellent therapeutic effects in reducing anxiety.DesignDouble-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial with 56 participants (21–82 years) with anxiety diagnosed by 3 different anxiety scales (BAI, GAD-7 and OASIS). A 30-min acupuncture session was applied once a week for 10 weeks.AimsEvaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture and electroacupuncture in the treatment of anxiety to verify if: (1) People with high anxiety report reduced scores after 5 and 10 sessions; (2) Salivary cortisol levels accompanied the reduced scores; (3) Electroacupuncture treatment is more effective than acupuncture; (4) the treatments is independent of anxiolytic medication.MethodsVolunteers were randomized into 3 groups (control, acupuncture, and electroacupuncture). The results were analyzed by anxiety scales and salivary cortisol tests.ResultsThe findings show an improvement in anxiety, assessed by BAI, GAD-7 and OASIS, after the 5th session of acupuncture (p < 0.05) and electroacupuncture (p < 0.05) and the 10th session for both techniques (p < 0.001). The salivary cortisol values measured in the morning followed this pattern (p < 0.05), although the reduction of the night cortisol values was not statistically significant. Electroacupuncture and acupuncture show similar efficacy. The positive effect after the treatments is independent of anxiolytic medication (p < 0.001).ConclusionAcupuncture and electroacupuncture are effective in treating anxiety on their own or as adjuncts to pharmacological therapy.Trial registration numberNºP445-08/2017 (Unidade de Investigação em Ciências da Saúde);  相似文献   
4.
目的:探讨温针灸对功能性便秘(FC)患者临床症状及焦虑抑郁的改善作用。方法:选取2017年1月至2017年12月中国中医科学院广安门医院南区收治的FC患者70例作为研究对象,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组35例。对照组采用常规针刺治疗,观察组采用温针灸治疗,比较治疗前后2组患者便秘临床症状积分、首次排便时间、中医证候评分、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)评分。结果:观察组有效率96. 00%,对照组有效率68. 00%,差异有统计学意义(P0. 05)。治疗后2组患者的周排便次数、粪便性状积分和排便困难程度均改善,中医证候评分、SAS和SDS评分下降,较治疗前差异有统计学意义(P 0. 05)。治疗后,观察组患者的周排便次数、粪便性状积分高于对照组,中医证候评分、SDS和SAS评分、首次排便时间以及排便困难程度积分小于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P 0. 05)。结论:温针灸治疗能调节胃肠道运动、润湿肠道、显著改善便秘等临床症状,对FC患者有显著临床效果。  相似文献   
5.
目的 探讨人格特征对喉鳞状细胞癌(LSCC)患者术后近期心理健康状况的影响。方法 纳入2017年1月—2019年12月在湖北省肿瘤医院行手术治疗的119例男性LSCC患者,术后5~7 d采用SCL-90、SAS、SDS自评量表评估术后心理状态,采用EPQ问卷测评患者的人格特征。多元线性逐步回归方法分析LSCC患者术后近期SAS和SDS评分的影响因素。结果 男性LSCC患者术后SCL-90、SAS、SDS得分显著高于中国常模(P≤0.05),EPQ中精神质(P)量表和神经质(N)量表得分高于中国常模(P<0.01)。男性LSCC患者术后躯体化、强迫、焦虑、抑郁、敌对、恐怖、偏执、精神病性因子得分均显著高于中国常模(P<0.05)。家庭收入、手术方式、术后近期是否行放化疗、P和N人格特征是术后SAS评分的影响因素(均P<0.01);家庭收入、手术方式、术后近期是否行放化疗和N人格特征是术后SDS评分的影响因素(P<0.01)。结论 LSCC患者术后近期存在抑郁、焦虑等心理障碍;具有P和N人格特征;家庭收入、手术方式、术后近期是否行放化疗以及P和N人格特征是影响术后SAS及SDS评分的独立危险因素。  相似文献   
6.
7.
ObjectiveThis study investigated the long-term rates of depression after oophorectomy for benign gynecological conditions with or without comorbidities.Materials and methodsThis retrospective cohort study examined data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) involving 8199 women aged ≥20 years who underwent unilateral or bilateral oophorectomy for benign gynecological conditions (cases) between 2000 and 2013 (index date). A second cohort consisted of 32,796 women who did not undergo oophorectomy (controls) who were matched 4:1 to cases by age and index year. The follow-up time was more than 10 years. For all participants, the analysis accounted for comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, and anxiety. Crude hazard ratios, adjusted hazard ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated according to multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for age, comorbidity, and the combination of oophorectomy with one comorbidity.ResultsOur results show that unilateral or bilateral oophorectomy, whether performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, increases the overall risk of depression (aHR: 1.36, 95%CI: 1.19–1.55). Compared with controls, women aged <50 years had a significantly higher incidence of depression. Having diabetes (aHR: 1.66, 95%CI: 1.09–2.51), hypertension (aHR:1.56, 95%CI:1.14–2.14), hyperlipidemia (aHR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.04–2.05), stroke (aHR: 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01–3.60), COPD (aHR: 2.06, 95%CI: 1.3–3.26), chronic liver cirrhosis (aHR: 1.99, 95%CI:1.52–2.61), or anxiety (aHR: 5.01, 95%CI: 3.74–6.70) increased higher risk of depression compared with not having these comorbidities after oophorectomy. The likelihood of depression was highest within the first 6 years following oophorectomy (3–5years:aHR:1.26, 95%CI:1.00–1.58).ConclusionsOopherectomy increases the overall risk of depression. We offer useful information for surgical decision-making and preoperative assessments of women undergoing oophorectomy. It is concluded that a synergistic effect exists between oophorectomy and the comorbidities. Post-surgery, physicians should carefully evaluate the risk of depression developing amongst women with comorbidities. A postoperative follow-up time of at least 6 years is recommended, as this period was associated with a significantly higher rate of depression during our over 10-year follow-up.  相似文献   
8.
BackgroundBurnout in teachers has been linked to decreased effectiveness as educators, and suboptimal interactions with students. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the outcomes of a brief Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program for public school staff.Materials and methodsThis single-arm, prospective trial involved an investigation of the effects of a brief SMART program on participant stress, anxiety, resilience, gratitude, happiness, life satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL).ResultsSignificant improvements were noted in participant anxiety (P < 0.001), stress (P = 0.003), gratitude (P = 0.001), happiness (P < 0.001), life satisfaction (P < 0.001), and QOL (P < 0.001). Most participants reported that the skills learned positively affected interactions with students (77.2%) and coworkers (72.2%).ConclusionsThe SMART program showed promising effectiveness for improving anxiety, stress, gratitude, happiness, life satisfaction and QOL. Given the prevalence and impact of teacher burnout, larger, controlled trials and broader dissemination of the intervention are warranted.  相似文献   
9.
This study investigated the link between anxiety and aggression in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) using self-report measures of anxiety and anger and teacher ratings of behaviour. Participants were 104 high school students aged 12–18: 52 students with ASDs, without intellectual disability, and their typically developing peers matched for age and gender. Students with ASDs who attend mainstream high schools reported higher levels of anxiety and reactive anger than their peers, were reported by their teachers to engage in more aggressive behaviours, and were at higher risk of being suspended from school. The results further suggested that social anxiety is a significant moderator of the relationship between autism and physical aggression. For ASD students, but not for the control students, there was a strong, positive relationship: higher levels of anxiety were associated with higher levels of physical aggression. However, ASD students with high anger control did not display physical aggression. Our results have implications for screening students for anxiety, the provision of interventions for managing anxiety and the development of anger management skills, and for the appropriateness of suspension as a mandatory response to incidents of physical aggression in schools.  相似文献   
10.
BackgroundExcessive consumption of ethanol is known to activate the mTORC1 pathway and to enhance the Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-2 (CRMP-2) levels in the limbic region of brain. The latter helps in forming microtubule assembly that is linked to drug taking or addiction-like behavior in rodents. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of lacosamide, an antiepileptic drug and a known CRMP-2 inhibitor, which binds to CRMP-2 and inhibits the formation of microtubule assembly, on ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice.MethodsThe behavior of mice following ethanol addiction and withdrawal was assessed by performing different behavioral paradigms. Mice underwent ethanol-induced CPP training with alternate dose of ethanol (2 g/kg, po) and saline (10 ml/kg, po). The effect of lacosamide on the expression of ethanol-induced CPP and on ethanol withdrawal associated anxiety and depression-like behavior was evaluated. The effect of drug on locomotor activity was also assessed and hippocampal CRMP-2 levels were measured.ResultsEthanol-induced CPP was associated with enhanced CRMP-2 levels in the hippocampus. Lacosamide significantly reduced the expression of ethanol-induced CPP and alleviated the levels of hippocampal CRMP-2 but aggravated withdrawal-associated anxiety and depression in mice.ConclusionThe present study demonstrated the beneficial effect of lacosamide in attenuation of expression of ethanol induced conditioned place preference via reduction of hippocampal CRMP-2 level. These findings suggest that lacosamide may be investigated further for ethanol addiction but not for managing withdrawal.  相似文献   
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