首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   9963979篇
  免费   638988篇
  国内免费   154023篇
耳鼻咽喉   130234篇
儿科学   281581篇
妇产科学   231306篇
基础医学   1228619篇
口腔科学   262397篇
临床医学   1002953篇
内科学   1654658篇
皮肤病学   202654篇
神经病学   720795篇
特种医学   375148篇
外国民族医学   1673篇
外科学   1320005篇
综合类   713580篇
一般理论   3728篇
预防医学   789954篇
眼科学   227387篇
药学   862387篇
  2673篇
中国医学   212274篇
肿瘤学   532984篇
  2022年   80457篇
  2021年   170781篇
  2020年   142247篇
  2019年   139702篇
  2018年   169566篇
  2017年   155921篇
  2016年   142362篇
  2015年   186990篇
  2014年   277430篇
  2013年   368431篇
  2012年   521049篇
  2011年   566111篇
  2010年   385364篇
  2009年   346220篇
  2008年   483304篇
  2007年   504049篇
  2006年   481141篇
  2005年   443055篇
  2004年   389345篇
  2003年   360538篇
  2002年   331969篇
  2001年   312027篇
  2000年   310050篇
  1999年   264190篇
  1998年   103738篇
  1997年   91030篇
  1996年   85121篇
  1995年   84008篇
  1994年   76409篇
  1993年   65106篇
  1992年   183031篇
  1991年   177371篇
  1990年   172026篇
  1989年   166743篇
  1988年   154238篇
  1987年   149944篇
  1986年   142785篇
  1985年   136143篇
  1984年   103413篇
  1983年   88626篇
  1982年   56301篇
  1979年   92738篇
  1978年   66507篇
  1977年   57219篇
  1976年   53103篇
  1975年   58187篇
  1974年   67228篇
  1973年   64168篇
  1972年   59376篇
  1971年   54985篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
2.
Serrated polyps (SPs) are precursors to one-third of colorectal cancers (CRCs), with histological subtypes: hyperplastic polyps (HPs), sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs). The incidence of early-onset CRC before the age of 50 is increasing, with limited understanding of SPs in younger cohorts. Using a large colonoscopy-based cohort, we characterized epidemiologic profiles of SP subtypes, compared to conventional adenomas, with secondary analysis on early-onset polyps. Ninety-four thousand four hundred and twenty-seven patients underwent screening colonoscopies between 2010 and 2018. Demographic, endoscopic and histopathologic characteristics of each polyp subtype were described. High-risk polyps included SSLs ≥10 mm/with dysplasia and conventional adenomas ≥10 mm/with tubulovillous/villous histology/high-grade dysplasia. We examined polyp prevalence with age and compared early- (age < 50) and late-onset polyps (age ≥ 50). Eighteen thousand one hundred and twenty-five patients had SPs (4357 SSLs, 15 415 HPs, 120 TSAs) and 26 699 had conventional adenomas. High-risk SSLs were enriched in the ascending colon (44.1% vs 2.6-35.8% for other locations; P < .003). Early- and late-onset SPs had similar subsite distribution. Early-onset conventional adenomas were more enriched in the distal colon/rectum (51.8% vs 43.4%, P < .001). Multiple conventional adenomas were more represented in late-onset groups (40.8% vs 33.8%, P < .001), with no difference in SSLs. The prevalence of conventional adenomas/high-risk conventional adenomas increased continuously with age, whereas the prevalence of SSLs/high-risk SSLs was stable from age 40 years onwards. A higher proportion of women were diagnosed with early-onset than late-onset SSLs (62.9% vs 57.6%, P = .03). Conventional adenomas, SSLs, early- and late-onset polyps have distinct epidemiology. The findings have implications for improved colonoscopy screening and surveillance and understanding the etiologic heterogeneity of CRC.  相似文献   
3.
Tamoxifen prevents recurrence of breast cancer and is suggested for preventive risk-reducing therapy. Tamoxifen reduces mammographic density, a proxy for therapy response, but little is known about its effects in remodelling normal breast tissue. Our study, a substudy within the double-blinded dose-determination trial KARISMA, investigated tamoxifen-specific changes in breast tissue composition and histological markers in healthy women. We included 83 healthy women randomised to 6 months daily intake of 20, 10, 5, 2.5, 1 mg of tamoxifen or placebo. The groups were combined to “no dose” (0-1 mg), “low-dose” (2.5-5 mg) or “high-dose” (10-20 mg) of tamoxifen. Ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected before and after tamoxifen exposure. In each biopsy, epithelial, stromal and adipose tissues was quantified, and expression of epithelial and stromal Ki67, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) analysed. Mammographic density using STRATUS was measured at baseline and end-of-tamoxifen-exposure. We found that different doses of tamoxifen reduced mammographic density and glandular-epithelial area in premenopausal women and associated with reduced epithelium and increased adipose tissue. High-dose tamoxifen also decreased epithelial ER and PR expressions in premenopausal women. Premenopausal women with the greatest reduction in proliferation also had the greatest epithelial reduction. In postmenopausal women, high-dose tamoxifen decreased the epithelial area with no measurable density decrease. Tamoxifen at both low and high doses influences breast tissue composition and expression of histological markers in the normal breast. Our findings connect epithelial proliferation with tissue remodelling in premenopausal women and provide novel insights to understanding biological mechanisms of primary prevention with tamoxifen.  相似文献   
4.
5.

Background

Glutamate plays a key role for post-ischaemic recovery of myocardial metabolism. According to post hoc analyses of the two GLUTAMICS trials, patients without diabetes benefit from glutamate with less myocardial dysfunction after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Copeptin reflects activation of the Arginine Vasopressin system and is a reliable marker of heart failure but available studies in cardiac surgery are limited. We investigated whether glutamate infusion is associated with reduced postoperative rises of plasma Copeptin (p-Copeptin) after CABG.

Methods

A prespecified randomised double-blind substudy of GLUTAMICS II. Patients had left ventricular ejection fraction ≤0.30 or EuroSCORE II ≥3.0 and underwent CABG ± valve procedure. Intravenous infusion of 0.125 M L-glutamic acid or saline at 1.65 mL/kg/h was commenced 10–20 min before the release of the aortic cross-clamp and then continued for another 150 min P-Copeptin was measured preoperatively and postoperatively on day one (POD1) and day three. The primary endpoint was an increase in p-Copeptin from the preoperative level to POD1. Postoperative stroke ≤24 h and mortality ≤30 days were safety outcomes.

Results

We included 181 patients of whom 48% had diabetes. The incidence of postoperative mortality ≤30 days (0% vs. 2.1%; p = .50) and stroke ≤24 h (0% vs. 3.2%; p = .25) did not differ between the glutamate group and controls. P-Copeptin increased postoperatively with the highest values recorded on POD1 without significant inter-group differences. Among patients without diabetes, p-Copeptin did not differ preoperatively but postoperative rise from preoperative level to POD1 was significantly reduced in the glutamate group (73 ± 66 vs. 115 ± 102 pmol/L; p = .02). P-Copeptin was significantly lower in the Glutamate group on POD1 (p = .02) and POD 3 (p = .02).

Conclusions

Glutamate did not reduce rises of p-Copeptin significantly after moderate to high-risk CABG. However, glutamate was associated with reduced rises of p-Copeptin among patients without diabetes. These results agree with previous observations suggesting that glutamate mitigates myocardial dysfunction after CABG in patients without diabetes. Given the exploratory nature of these findings, they need to be confirmed in future studies.  相似文献   
6.
Modified-release opioids are often prescribed for the management of moderate to severe acute pain following total hip and knee arthroplasty, despite recommendations against their use due to increasing concerns regarding harm. The primary objective of this multicentre study was to examine the impact of modified-release opioid use on the incidence of opioid-related adverse events compared with immediate-release opioid use, among adult inpatients following total hip or knee arthroplasty. Data for total hip and knee arthroplasty inpatients receiving an opioid analgesic for postoperative analgesia during hospitalisation were collected from electronic medical records of three tertiary metropolitan hospitals in Australia. The primary outcome was the incidence of opioid-related adverse events during hospital admission. Patients who received modified with or without immediate-release opioids were matched to those receiving immediate-release opioids only (1:1) using nearest neighbour propensity score matching with patient and clinical characteristics as covariates. This included total opioid dose received. In the matched cohorts, patients given modified-release opioids (n = 347) experienced a higher incidence of opioid-related adverse events overall, compared with those given immediate-release opioids only (20.5%, 71/347 vs. 12.7%, 44/347; difference in proportions 7.8% [95%CI 2.3–13.3%]). Modified-release opioid use was associated with an increased risk of harm when used for acute pain during hospitalisation after total hip or knee arthroplasty.  相似文献   
7.

Introduction

Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is estimated to occur in 10%–25% of the general intensive care unit (ICU) population and is frequently seen as regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMAs). Although RWMA is mostly attributed to myocardial ischemia or infarction, some studies have suggested that nonischemic RWMA might also be prevalent. We sought to establish that RWMA can be seen in critically ill patients with normal coronary arteries and to explore reasons for RWMA in this population.

Methods

In this retrospective study, data from the hospital angiography register and the ICU register were collated between 2012 and 2019. Patients were identified who underwent angiography in conjunction with their ICU stay and had RWMA on echocardiography. Patients were divided into either those with non-obstructed or those with obstructed coronary arteries. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) examinations were reviewed if they had been performed on patients with non-obstructed coronaries.

Results

We identified 53 patients with RWMA and non-obstructed coronary arteries and 204 patients with RWMA and obstructed coronary arteries. Patients with non-obstructed coronary arteries were more often female, younger, and had fewer cardiovascular risk factors. They less commonly had ST elevation, but more frequently had T-wave inversion or serious arrhythmias. Troponin levels were higher in patients with obstructed coronary arteries, but NT-proBNP was similar between the groups. There were no differences in risk-adjusted 90-day mortality between patients with non-obstructed versus obstructed coronary arteries (OR 1.21, [95% CI 0.56–2.64], p = .628). In those with non-obstructed coronary arteries, follow-up echocardiography was available for 38 patients, of whom 30 showed normalization of cardiac function. Of the 14 patients with non-obstructed coronary arteries on whom cMRI was performed, 7 had a tentative diagnosis of Takotsubo syndrome or myocardial stunning; 4 had a myocardial infarction (preexisting in 3 cases); 1 patient had acute myocarditis; 1 patient had post-myocarditis; and 1 patient was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy.

Conclusion

RWMA can be seen to occur in critically ill patients in the absence of coronary artery obstruction. Several conditions can cause regional hypokinesia, and cMRI is useful to evaluate the underlying etiology.  相似文献   
8.
Post-induction hypotension is common and associated with postoperative complications. We hypothesised that pneumatic leg compression reduces post-induction hypotension in elderly patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. In this double-blind randomised study, patients were allocated randomly to the pneumatic leg compression group (n = 50) or control (n = 50). In the intervention group, pneumatic leg compression was initiated before induction of anaesthesia. In the control group, pneumatic leg compression was initiated 20 min after anaesthesia induction. The primary outcome was the incidence of post-induction hypotension in these groups. Post-induction hypotension was defined as systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg during the first 20 min after induction. Haemodynamic variables and area under the curve of post-induction systolic blood pressure over time were assessed. Complications associated with pneumatic leg compression were recorded, including: peripheral neuropathy; compartment syndrome; extensive bullae beneath the leg sleeves; and pulmonary thromboembolism. The incidence of post-induction hypotension decreased in the pneumatic leg compression group compared with that in the control group; 5 (10%) vs. 29 (58%), respectively, p < 0.001. In the pneumatic leg compression group, the lowest systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures 20 min after induction of anaesthesia were significantly greater than the control group. Pneumatic leg compression resulted in an increased area under the curve of systolic blood pressure in the first 20 min after induction, p = 0.001. There were no pneumatic leg compression-related complications. Pneumatic leg compression reduced post-induction hypotension in elderly patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, suggesting that it is an effective and safe intervention to prevent post-induction hypotension among elderly patients undergoing general anaesthesia.  相似文献   
9.
10.
目的探讨C型凝集素受体Dectin-2在烟曲霉菌感染中的作用及机制。方法用紫外线灭活的烟曲霉菌膨胀态分生孢子刺激野生型(wild type, WT)和Dectin-2缺失(Clec4n-/-)小鼠骨髓来源的巨噬细胞(bone marrow derived macrophages, BMDMs)。刺激20min及40min后,利用Western印迹法检测BMDMs中脾酪氨酸激酶(spleen tyrosine kinase, Syk)和核转录因子κB抑制因子(inhibitor-κB, IκBα)的磷酸化水平。刺激16h后,利用酶联免疫吸附法(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA)检测BMDMs细胞上清液中IL-6、TNF-α和IL-12p40的水平。另一方面,利用压舌感染的方法在WT和Clec4n-/-小鼠中构建烟曲霉菌肺部感染模型。感染2d后,统计小鼠整个肺脏荷菌量,并检测肺脏匀浆液中IL-6和IL-12p40水平。结果体外试验提示,烟曲霉菌刺激后,Dectin-2缺失的BMDMs中Syk和IκBα的磷酸化水平及IL-6、TNF-α和IL-12p40水平显著下降(P<0.05)。体内试验发现,烟曲霉菌感染后,Dectin-2缺失小鼠中肺脏荷菌量显著升高(P<0.05),肺脏匀浆液内IL-6、IL-12p40水平显著降低(P<0.05)。结论C型凝集素受体Dectin-2激活烟曲霉菌诱导的NF-κB信号通路并介导促炎细胞因子的产生,可在小鼠肺烟曲霉菌病动物模型中发挥保护性作用。  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号