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神经内分泌肿瘤(neuroendocrine neoplasm,NEN)是一类起源于肽能神经元和神经内分泌细胞,具有神经内分泌分化并表达神经内分泌标志物的少见肿瘤,可发生于全身各处,以肺及胃肠胰NEN(gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm, GEP-NEN)最常见。国内外研究数据均提示,NEN的发病率在不断上升。美国流行病学调查结果显示,与其他类型肿瘤相比,NEN的发病率上升趋势更为显著。中国抗癌协会神经内分泌肿瘤专委会在现有循证医学证据基础上,结合已有国内外指南和共识,制订了首版中国抗癌协会神经内分泌肿瘤诊治指南,为临床工作者提供参考。  相似文献   
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Abstract

Supporting patients in making informed healthcare decisions is a cornerstone of ethical medical practice. Surgeons frequently draw for and show images to patients when consenting them for operations but the value of this practice in informed decision-making is unclear. An audit was conducted in a General Surgery Department. 244 patients completed questionnaires on the value of visual materials when giving consent for surgery. The complexity of the operations was classified into “simple”, “moderate” or “complex”. 100% of patients felt they had given informed consent to surgery. 62% of patients received at least one form of visual material during the consenting process. All patients who received a drawing, and 99% of those provided with other images, valued these resources. Visual materials were considered more useful to patients when giving consent for moderate or complex operations than simple ones. Approximately one third of patients who did not receive visual materials would have appreciated these when making an informed decision. This research highlights the value of surgeons drawing for, and providing other visual resources to, their patients as part of the consent process. There is a role for further research and training materials in drawing skills for surgeons.  相似文献   
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Accurate and reliable detection of white matter hyperintensities and their volume quantification can provide valuable clinical information to assess neurologic disease progression. In this work, a stacked generalization ensemble of orthogonal 3D convolutional neural networks, StackGen-Net, is explored for improving automated detection of white matter hyperintensities in 3D T2-FLAIR images.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Individual convolutional neural networks in StackGen-Net were trained on 2.5D patches from orthogonal reformatting of 3D-FLAIR (n = 21) to yield white matter hyperintensity posteriors. A meta convolutional neural network was trained to learn the functional mapping from orthogonal white matter hyperintensity posteriors to the final white matter hyperintensity prediction. The impact of training data and architecture choices on white matter hyperintensity segmentation performance was systematically evaluated on a test cohort (n = 9). The segmentation performance of StackGen-Net was compared with state-of-the-art convolutional neural network techniques on an independent test cohort from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative-3 (n = 20).RESULTS:StackGen-Net outperformed individual convolutional neural networks in the ensemble and their combination using averaging or majority voting. In a comparison with state-of-the-art white matter hyperintensity segmentation techniques, StackGen-Net achieved a significantly higher Dice score (0.76 [SD, 0.08], F1-lesion (0.74 [SD, 0.13]), and area under precision-recall curve (0.84 [SD, 0.09]), and the lowest absolute volume difference (13.3% [SD, 9.1%]). StackGen-Net performance in Dice scores (median = 0.74) did not significantly differ (P = .22) from interobserver (median = 0.73) variability between 2 experienced neuroradiologists. We found no significant difference (P = .15) in white matter hyperintensity lesion volumes from StackGen-Net predictions and ground truth annotations.CONCLUSIONS:A stacked generalization of convolutional neural networks, utilizing multiplanar lesion information using 2.5D spatial context, greatly improved the segmentation performance of StackGen-Net compared with traditional ensemble techniques and some state-of-the-art deep learning models for 3D-FLAIR.

White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) correspond to pathologic features of axonal degeneration, demyelination, and gliosis observed within cerebral white matter.1 Clinically, the extent of WMHs in the brain has been associated with cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, and increased risk of stroke.2,3 The detection and quantification of WMH volumes to monitor lesion burden evolution and its correlation with clinical outcomes have been of interest in clinical research.4,5 Although the extent of WMHs can be visually scored,6 the categoric nature of such scoring systems makes quantitative evaluation of disease progression difficult. Manually segmenting WMHs is tedious, prone to inter- and intraobserver variability, and is, in most cases, impractical. Thus, there is an increased interest in developing fast, accurate, and reliable computer-aided automated techniques for WMH segmentation.Convolutional neural network (CNN)-based approaches have been successful in several semantic segmentation tasks in medical imaging.7 Recent works have proposed using deep learning–based methods for segmenting WMHs using 2D-FLAIR images.8-11 More recently, a WMH segmentation challenge12 was also organized (http://wmh.isi.uu.nl/) to facilitate comparison of automated segmentation of WMHs of presumed vascular origin in 2D multislice T2-FLAIR images. Architectures that used an ensemble of separately trained CNNs showed promising results in this challenge, with 3 of the top 5 winners using ensemble-based techniques.12Conventional 2D-FLAIR images are typically acquired with thick slices (3–4 mm) and possible slice gaps. Partial volume effects from a thick slice are likely to affect the detection of smaller lesions, both in-plane and out-of-plane. 3D-FLAIR images, with isotropic resolution, have been shown to achieve higher resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio13 and have shown promising results in MS lesion detection using 3D CNNs.14 Additionally, the isotropic resolution enables viewing and evaluation of the images in multiple planes. This multiplanar reformatting of 3D-FLAIR without the use of interpolating kernels is only possible due to the isotropic nature of the acquisition. Network architectures that use information from the 3 orthogonal views have been explored in recent works for CNN-based segmentation of 3D MR imaging data.15 The use of data from multiple planes allows more spatial context during training without the computational burden associated with full 3D training.16 The use of 3 orthogonal views simultaneously mirrors how humans approach this segmentation task.Ensembles of CNNs have been shown to average away the variances in the solution and the choice of model- and configuration-specific behaviors of CNNs.17 Traditionally, the solutions from these separately trained CNNs are combined by averaging or using a majority consensus. In this work, we propose the use of a stacked generalization framework (StackGen-Net) for combining multiplanar lesion information from 3D CNN ensembles to improve the detection of WMH lesions in 3D-FLAIR. A stacked generalization18 framework learns to combine solutions from individual CNNs in the ensemble. We systematically evaluated the performance of this framework and compared it with traditional ensemble techniques, such as averaging or majority voting, and state-of-the-art deep learning techniques.  相似文献   
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儿童心脏移植是治疗年龄18岁终末期心力衰竭患者的有效手段。1967年美国Adrian Katrowitz实施第一例儿童心脏移植,近五年全球80家单位每年开展500例左右。中国儿童心脏移植起步晚、发展慢。自1995年开展第一例儿童心脏移植以来,目前国内已登记病例超过130例。中华医学会器官移植学分会组织心脏移植专家,总结国内外相关研究最新进展,结合国际指南和临床实践,针对儿童心脏移植受者选择及常用术式的操作要点、程序和方法,以及各类复杂先天性心脏病心脏移植的特殊操作,制订《中国儿童心脏移植适操作规范(2019版)》。  相似文献   
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Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, few studies have reported anaesthetic outcomes in parturients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We reviewed the labour analgesic and anaesthetic interventions utilised in symptomatic and asymptomatic parturients who had a confirmed positive test for SARS-CoV-2 across 10 hospitals in the north-west of England between 1 April 2020 and 31 May 2021. Primary outcomes analysed included the analgesic/anaesthetic technique utilised for labour and caesarean birth. Secondary outcomes included a comparison of maternal characteristics, caesarean birth rate, maternal critical care admission rate along with adverse composite neonatal outcomes. A positive SARS-CoV-2 test was recorded in 836 parturients with 263 (31.4%) reported to have symptoms of COVID-19. Neuraxial labour analgesia was utilised in 104 (20.4%) of the 509 parturients who went on to have a vaginal birth. No differences in epidural analgesia rates were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic parturients (OR 1.03, 95%CI 0.64–1.67; p = 0.90). The neuraxial anaesthesia rate in 310 parturients who underwent caesarean delivery was 94.2% (95%CI 90.6–96.0%). The rates of general anaesthesia were similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic parturients (6% vs. 5.7%; p = 0.52). Symptomatic parturients were more likely to be multiparous (OR 1.64, 95%CI 1.19–2.22; p = 0.002); of Asian ethnicity (OR 1.54, 1.04–2.28; p = 0.03); to deliver prematurely (OR 2.16, 95%CI 1.47–3.19; p = 0.001); have a higher caesarean birth rate (44.5% vs. 33.7%; OR 1.57, 95%CI 1.16–2.12; p = 0.008); and a higher critical care utilisation rate both pre- (8% vs. 0%, p = 0.001) and post-delivery (11% vs. 3.5%; OR 3.43, 95%CI 1.83–6.52; p = 0.001). Eight neonates tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 while no differences in adverse composite neonatal outcomes were observed between those born to symptomatic and asymptomatic mothers (25.8% vs. 23.8%; OR 1.11, 95%CI 0.78–1.57; p = 0.55). In women with COVID-19, non-neuraxial analgesic regimens were commonly utilised for labour while neuraxial anaesthesia was employed for the majority of caesarean births. Symptomatic women with COVID-19 are at increased risk of significant maternal morbidity including preterm birth, caesarean birth and peripartum critical care admission.  相似文献   
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