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目的 系统评价翻转课堂教学模式在物理治疗学教学中的应用效果。方法 计算机检索CENTRAL、MEDLINE、EMBASE、CINAHL Plus、Academic Search Premier、Teacher Reference Center、ERIC以及Education Research,纳入翻转课堂教学模式应用于物理治疗学教学的原始研究。检索时限为建库至2021年6月。由2名研究人员独立完成文献筛选、数据提取、质量评价,对翻转课堂教学模式对比传统教学模式在物理治疗学教学中的效果进行综述。结果与结论 共检索文献1 307篇,最终纳入7篇,包括至少770名学生。发表时间集中在2013年至2019年,研究对象为物理治疗学专业学生,主要结局指标为考试成绩。翻转课堂教学模式总体说来可提高学生的笔试成绩,增强高阶思维能力,得到了学生和教师的积极评价。  相似文献   
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This meta-analysis was designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for patients with low back pain (LBP). Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane's library, PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data were searched until December 2019 to identify studies assessing the effectiveness and safety of EPSW for LBP. The prime outcome is pain intensity measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS). Other outcomes included functional status, quality of life, psychological outcomes measured by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), as well as the adverse events. Mean differences (MD) were calculated for continuous outcomes, while odd ratios (OR) were calculated for binary outcomes. Revman 5.3 software was used for statistical analysis. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were finally included in this meta-analysis. The pooled mean difference in post-treatment pain scores was −2.37 (P <0.0001), indicating that post-treatment pain scores was significantly higher by 2.37 in control group than in ESWT group. At a mean follow-up time of 4–6 weeks, the pooled mean difference in ODI scores was −14.10 (P <0.00001), indicating that the pooled mean difference of post-treatment ODI scores was 14.10 higher in control group than in ESWT group. The use of ESWT is effective in alleviating pain and improving the general functional state for patients with LBP. However, more evidence was needed to verify its safety.  相似文献   
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《Survey of ophthalmology》2023,68(2):257-264
RationaleObstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has been linked to various ocular disorders, including floppy eyelid syndrome (FES). Previous studies have hypothesised the underlying association between the 2 , but results are currently still inconclusive.ObjectiveTo investigate the association between OSA and FES.MethodsFour databases (Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane Library) were searched from inception until 28 February 2022 for observational studies and randomized controlled trials assessing the association between OSA and FES. Two reviewers selected studies, extracted data, graded the risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and the quality of assessment using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system. Random-effects models were used to metaanalyze the associations.ResultsTwelve studies were included in the systematic review, of which nine were suitable for metaanalysis, with a combined cohort of 1,109 patients. Risk of bias was low to moderate. The overall analysis showed a significant positive association between OSA and FES (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.27–2.83, I 2 = 44%). Further analysis revealed that the more severe the OSA was, the higher the risk of developing FES. Patients with severe OSA had the nominally highest risk of developing FES (OR = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.62–5.78, I 2 = 0%), followed by moderate OSA (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.29–4.97, I 2 = 0%), and patients with mild OSA had the lowest risk (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 0.85–3.62, I 2 = 0%).ConclusionOur metaanalysis reports a positive association between OSA and FES, with increasing severity of OSA correlating with a significantly higher risk of FES. More longitudinal studies with sufficient duration of follow-up are needed to better characterise the relationship between OSA and FES.  相似文献   
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PurposeUnderstanding the value of genetic screening and testing for monogenic disorders requires high-quality, methodologically robust economic evaluations. This systematic review sought to assess the methodological quality among such studies and examined opportunities for improvement.MethodsWe searched PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and Web of Science for economic evaluations of genetic screening/testing (2013-2019). Methodological rigor and adherence to best practices were systematically assessed using the British Medical Journal checklist.ResultsAcross the 47 identified studies, there were substantial variations in modeling approaches, reporting detail, and sophistication. Models ranged from simple decision trees to individual-level microsimulations that compared between 2 and >20 alternative interventions. Many studies failed to report sufficient detail to enable replication or did not justify modeling assumptions, especially for costing methods and utility values. Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, or calibration were rarely used to derive parameter estimates. Nearly all studies conducted some sensitivity analysis, and more sophisticated studies implemented probabilistic sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, threshold analysis, and value of information analysis.ConclusionWe describe a heterogeneous body of work and present recommendations and exemplar studies across the methodological domains of (1) perspective, scope, and parameter selection; (2) use of uncertainty/sensitivity analyses; and (3) reporting transparency for improvement in the economic evaluation of genetic screening/testing.  相似文献   
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BACKGROUND Approximately 20% of patients with neuroendocrine tumours(NETs) develop carcinoid syndrome(CS),characterised by flushing and diarrhoea.Somatostatin analogues or telotristat can be used to control symptoms of CS through inhibition of serotonin secretion.Although CS is often the cause of diarrhoea among patients with gastroenteropancreatic NETs(GEP-NETs),other causes to consider include pancreatic enzyme insufficiency(PEI),bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.If other causes of diarrhoea unrelated to serotonin secretion are mistaken for CS diarrhoea,these treatments may be ineffective against the diarrhoea,risking detrimental effects to patient quality of life.AIM To identify and synthesise qualitative and quantitative evidence relating to the differential diagnosis of diarrhoea in patients with GEP-NETs.METHODS Electronic databases(MEDLINE,Embase and the Cochrane Library) were searched from inception to September 12,2018 using terms for NETs and diarrhoea.Congresses,systematic literature review bibliographies and included articles were also hand-searched.Any study designs and publication types were eligible for inclusion if relevant data on a cause(s) of diarrhoea in patients with GEP-NETs were reported.Studies were screened by two independent reviewers at abstract and full-text stages.Framework synthesis was adapted to synthesise quantitative and qualitative data.The definition of qualitative data was expanded to include all textual data in any section of relevant publications.RESULTS Forty-seven publications(44 studies) were included,comprising a variety of publication types,including observational studies,reviews,guidelines,case reports,interventional studies,and opinion pieces.Most reported on PEI on/after treatment with somatostatin analogs;9.5%-84% of patients with GEP-NETs had experienced steatorrhoea or confirmed PEI.Where reported,14.3%–50.7% of patients received pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.Other causes of diarrhoea reported in patients with GEP-NETs included bile acid malabsorption(80%),small intestinal bacterial overgrowth(23.6%-62%),colitis(20%) and infection(7.1%).Diagnostic approaches included faecal elastase,breath tests,tauroselcholic(selenium-75) acid(Se HCAT) scan and stool culture,although evidence on the effectiveness or diagnostic accuracy of these approaches was limited.Assessment of patient history or diarrhoea characteristics was also reported as initial approaches for investigation.From the identified evidence,if diarrhoea is assumed to be CS diarrhoea,consequences include uncontrolled diarrhoea,malnutrition,and perceived ineffectiveness of CS treatment.Approaches for facilitating differential diagnosis of diarrhoea include improving patient and clinician awareness of non-CS causes and involvement of a multidisciplinary clinical team,including gastroenterologists.CONCLUSION Diarrhoea in GEP-NETs can be multifactorial with misdiagnosis leading to delayed patient recovery and inefficient resource use.This systematic literature review highlights gaps for further research on prevalence of non-CS diarrhoea and suitability of diagnostic approaches,to determine an effective algorithm for differential diagnosis of GEP-NET diarrhoea.  相似文献   
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《Australian critical care》2019,32(6):540-559
ObjectivesThe objective of this review was to describe cardiovascular risk (CVR) assessment methods and to identify evidence-based practice recommendations when dealing with population at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.Review methods and data sourcesA literature review following the Arksey and O'Malley scoping review methodology was conducted. By using appropriate key terms, literature searches were conducted in PubMed, SciELO, Cochrane Library, Dialnet, ENFISPO, Medigraphic, ScienceDirect, Cuiden, and Lilacs databases. A complementary search on websites related to the area of interest was conducted. Articles published in English or Spanish in peer-review journals between 2010 and 2017. Critical appraisal for methodological quality was conducted. Data was extracted using ad-hoc tables and qualitatively synthesized.ResultsAfter eliminating duplicates, 55 325 records remained, and 1432 records were selected for screening. Out of these, 88 full-text articles were selected for eligibility criteria, and finally, 67 studies were selected for this review, and 25 studies were selected for evidence synthesis. In total, 23 CVR assessment tools have been identified, pioneered by the Framingham study. Qualitative findings were grouped into four thematic areas: assessment tools and scores, CVR indicators, comparative models, and evidence-based recommendations.ConclusionsIt is necessary to adapt the instruments to the epidemiological reality of the population. The most appropriate way to estimate CVR is to choose the assessment tool that best suits individual conditions, accompanied by a comprehensive assessment of the patient. More research is required to determine a single, adequate, and reliable tool.  相似文献   
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