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Despite orientation and mobility (O&M) being a significant factor determining quality of life of people with low vision or blindness, there are no gold standard measures or agreement on how to measure O&M performance. In the first part of this systematic review, an inventory of O&M outcome measures used by recent studies to assess the performance of orientation and/or mobility of adults with vision impairment (low vision and blindness) is presented. A wide variety of O&M outcome measures have been implemented in different fields of study, such as epidemiologic research and interventional studies evaluating training, assistive technology, vision rehabilitation and vision restoration. The most frequent aspect of outcome measures is efficiency such as time, distance, speed and percentage of preferred walking speed, followed by obstacle contacts and avoidance, and dis/orientation and veering. Other less commonly used aspects are target identification, safety and social interaction and self-reported outcome measures. Some studies employ sophisticated equipment to capture and analyse O&M performance in a laboratory setting, while others carry out their assessment in real-world indoor or outdoor environments. In the second part of this review, the appropriateness of implementing the identified outcome measures to assess O&M performance in clinical and functional O&M practice is evaluated. Nearly a half of these outcome measures meet all four criteria of face validity (either clinical or functional), responsiveness, reliability and feasibility and have the potential to be implemented in clinical or functional O&M practice. The findings of this review confirm the complicated and dynamic nature of O&M. Multiple measures are required in any evaluation of O&M performance to facilitate holistic assessment of O&M abilities and limitations of each individual.  相似文献   
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ObjectivesTo determine the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and RLS-mimic conditions, the risk factors for RLS, and whether RLS contributes to functional impairment in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).MethodsADHD children and adolescents were prospectively studied at the outpatient psychiatric clinic. A trained registered nurse used the 2012 Revised International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group diagnostic criteria to diagnose RLS. Sociodemographic data and medical records were reviewed. Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report (WFIRS-P) Thai version was used to identify association between RLS and 6 domains of function [family, school (learning), school (behavior), life skills, child self-concept, social activities, and risky activities].ResultsA total of 217 patients were included. Of those, 23 (11%) patients met the criteria for RLS, and 49 (23%) had RLS-mimic conditions. Those conditions included myalgia (30/49), habitual foot tapping (23/49), positional discomfort (20/49), leg ulcer/bruise (1/49), and arthralgia/arthritis (1/49). Binary logistic regression revealed first-degree relative having RLS symptom to be significantly associated with RLS in study patients (OR: 5.06, p < 0.01). Multivariate linear regression showed RLS to be independently associated with school (behavior) (Β = 1.18, p = 0.05) and life skills (Β = 2.36, p = 0.05) impairment.ConclusionsRLS was found to be common in ADHD children and adolescents. RLS-mimic conditions were found in two-thirds of patients who previously met 4 essential RLS criteria. First-degree relative with RLS symptom was associated with RLS, and RLS was associated with functional impairment in the life skills and school (behavior) domains.  相似文献   
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??Objective    To observe the effects of lithium chloride pretreatment on cognitive ability of aged rats after oral and maxillofacial surgery. Methods    A total of 48 aged male SD rats??18 ~ 20 months old??weight 550 ~ 700 g?? were bought from the Experimental Animal Center of China Medical University . These rats were randomly divided into three groups??including the normal control group??group C??n=16????surgery and anesthesia group??group O??n=16????and lithium chloride preconditioning group??group L??n=16??.Rats in each group were randomly divided into two parts??one part was given Morris water maze test three days after the surgery and its characteristics of behavior tested. Another part was decapitated 24 h after the surgery and extracted and the hippocampus brain separated at the same time. Test expression content of IL-1β GSK-3β p-GSK-3β??ser9??in the hippocampus by Elisa and Western blotting detection method respectively. Results    Morris water maze test showed that??the first day after surgery??latencies of group L and O were significantly longer than group C??compared with group C in swimming distance?? latency and swim distances of group L were shorter than group O. With the comparison of multiple analysis of variance??differences were statistically significant??P??0.05??. Groups L and O in the second day were slightly shortened compared to the first day??on the third day after surgery it has also improved over the second day. Space exploration experiments in rats showed that??the dwell time of group C was significantly longer in the platform quadrant and the frequency of crossing the platform also increased compared with groups L and O. In addition??group L and group O were higher in IL-β levels than group C??the difference being statistically significant by analysis of variance??P??0.05????but group L was significantly lower compared with group O??the difference being statistically significant??P??0.05??. The content of GSK-3β of three groups were of no significant difference??P > 0.05????but p-GSK-3β??ser9??content was significantly lower in group L and O than in group C. The content of GSK-3β of group L was higher than in group O??the difference being statistically significant??P??0.05??. Conclusion    Pretreatment with lithium chloride in postoperative aged rats can inhibit the expression of inflammatory cytokines and increase GSK-3β phosphorylation in the hippocampus cells??so p-GSK-3β??ser9??upregulates and inhibites  the apoptosis of brain cells??thereby improved cognitive abilities after the cavity and maxillofacial surgery.  相似文献   
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目的:应用99mTc-DTPA肾动脉显像评价Stanford不同分型主动脉夹层患者术后左、右侧肾功能及总体肾功能受损程度,帮助临床制定进一步的治疗方案,改善患者预后。方法:回顾性分析2018年3月8日至2019年7月19日,在本院核医学科行99mTc-DTPA肾动态显像的主动脉夹层术后患者48例,评价患者双肾血流灌注、总肾小球滤过率(GFR)和分肾的GFR,比较Stanford主动脉夹层A型(简称A型)患者和主动脉夹层B型(简称B型)患者之间总肾功能及分肾功能,血肌酐、血尿素氮及血尿酸水平的差异。结果:B型患者术后总GFR低于A型患者(67.5 vs.80.6 m L/min,P<0.05),其中以左肾功能受损为著(30.9 vs.40.3 m L/min,P<0.05),差异有统计学意义。结论:肾动态显像对主动脉夹层术后患者早期评价肾功能有重要价值。主动脉夹层B型患者GFR较A型减低,且左侧肾GFR减低更明显,临床可以早期采取干预措施,改善主动脉夹层患者预后。  相似文献   
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目的观察丙泊酚麻醉对老龄大鼠认知功能及海马神经元γ-氨基丁酸A(GABA)受体表达的影响。方法50只SD老年大鼠随机分为丙泊酚组和对照组,每组25只。丙泊酚组大鼠腹腔注射1%丙泊酚中/长链脂肪乳注射液6 mL/kg,对照组腹腔注射等体积的生理盐水。麻醉后1 d进行Morris水迷宫实验,分别采用HE染色和尼氏体染色观察海马区神经细胞及尼氏体(Nissl体)形态学变化,Western Blot检测GABA蛋白量表达。结果麻醉后,2组大鼠肛温、心率、呼吸频率、血氧饱和度比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。随着实验时间的延长,2组大鼠逃逸潜伏期、总里程数逐渐减小,丙泊酚组大鼠各时间点逃逸潜伏期、总里程均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。丙泊酚组大鼠穿越平台区域次数、时间小于、短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。对照组海马区Nissl体存在于细胞浆及树突,染色较深,神经细胞排列整齐,形态规则;丙泊酚组Nissl体消失,神经细胞数量减少,细胞核破裂、丢失。丙泊酚组大鼠海马GABA蛋白表达量低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论丙泊酚对大鼠认知功能有影响,并与海马区GABA的表达相关。  相似文献   
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Alterations in autophagy are increasingly being recognized in the pathogenesis of proteinopathies like Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study was conducted to evaluate whether melatonin treatment could provide beneficial effects in an Alzheimer model related to tauopathy by improving the autophagic flux and, thereby, prevent cognitive decline. The injection of AAV‐hTauP301L viral vectors and treatment/injection with okadaic acid were used to achieve mouse and human ex vivo, and in vivo tau‐related models. Melatonin (10 μmol/L) impeded oxidative stress, tau hyperphosphorylation, and cell death by restoring autophagy flux in the ex vivo models. In the in vivo studies, intracerebroventricular injection of AAV‐hTauP301L increased oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus 7 days after the injection, without inducing cognitive impairment; however, when animals were maintained for 28 days, cognitive decline was apparent. Interestingly, late melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg), starting once the alterations mentioned above were established (from day 7 to day 28), reduced oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, tau hyperphosphorylation, and caspase‐3 activation; these observations correlated with restoration of the autophagy flux and memory improvement. This study highlights the importance of autophagic dysregulation in tauopathy and how administration of pharmacological doses of melatonin, once tauopathy is initiated, can restore the autophagy flux, reduce proteinopathy, and prevent cognitive decline. We therefore propose exogenous melatonin supplementation or the development of melatonin derivatives to improve autophagy flux for the treatment of proteinopathies like AD.  相似文献   
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Recent work suggests that while voluntary episodic memory declines with age, involuntary episodic memory, which comes to mind spontaneously without intention, remains relatively intact. However, the neurophysiology underlying these differences has yet to be established. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate voluntary and involuntary retrieval in older and younger adults. Participants first encoded sounds, half of which were paired with pictures, the other half unpaired. EEG was then recorded as they listened to the sounds, with participants in the involuntary group performing a sound localization cover task, and those in the voluntary group additionally attempting to recall the associated pictures. Participants later reported which sounds brought the paired picture to mind during the localization task. Reaction times on the localization task were slower for voluntary than involuntary retrieval and for paired than unpaired sounds, possibly reflecting increased attentional demands of voluntary retrieval and interference from reactivation of the associated pictures respectively. For the EEG analyses, young adults showed greater alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) during voluntary than involuntary retrieval at frontal and occipital sites, while older adults showed pronounced alpha ERD regardless of intention. Additionally, older adults showed greater ERD for paired than unpaired sounds at occipital sites, likely reflecting visual reactivation of the associated pictures. Young adults did not show this alpha ERD memory effect. Taken together, these data suggest that involuntary memory is largely preserved with age, but this may be due to older adults' greater recruitment of top-down control even when demand for such control is limited.  相似文献   
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