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1.
Intratumor heterogeneity is a main cause of the dismal prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM). Yet, there remains a lack of a uniform assessment of the degree of heterogeneity. With a multiscale approach, we addressed the hypothesis that intratumor heterogeneity exists on different levels comprising traditional regional analyses, but also innovative methods including computer-assisted analysis of tumor morphology combined with epigenomic data. With this aim, 157 biopsies of 37 patients with therapy-naive IDH-wildtype GBM were analyzed regarding the intratumor variance of protein expression of glial marker GFAP, microglia marker Iba1 and proliferation marker Mib1. Hematoxylin and eosin stained slides were evaluated for tumor vascularization. For the estimation of pixel intensity and nuclear profiling, automated analysis was used. Additionally, DNA methylation profiling was conducted separately for the single biopsies. Scoring systems were established to integrate several parameters into one score for the four examined modalities of heterogeneity (regional, cellular, pixel-level and epigenomic). As a result, we could show that heterogeneity was detected in all four modalities. Furthermore, for the regional, cellular and epigenomic level, we confirmed the results of earlier studies stating that a higher degree of heterogeneity is associated with poorer overall survival. To integrate all modalities into one score, we designed a predictor of longer survival, which showed a highly significant separation regarding the OS. In conclusion, multiscale intratumor heterogeneity exists in glioblastoma and its degree has an impact on overall survival. In future studies, the implementation of a broadly feasible heterogeneity index should be considered.  相似文献   
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Nanocrystalline platinum with different morphologies is synthesized via electrochemical deposition technique. The nucleation mechanism and its structural effect over the electrodeposited Pt on carbon electrodes have been systematically studied. Powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy are employed to study nucleation, oxidation states, and Pt structure growth on a carbon electrode. This study reports significant development of Pt metal nanoparticles with different morphologies such as a sphere, flower, core-flower, and rod-like structure directly fabricated on carbon electrode while tuning the deposition parameters such as current density, time, temperature, pH during the deposition process. The proposed electrochemical route represents a superior fabrication procedure for large-scale electrode fabrication compared to a conventional method for preparing membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cell stacks.  相似文献   
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ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to investigate the association between morphological variation and postsurgical pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis (PPVS) in patients with cardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC).MethodsThis single-center, retrospective study included 168 pediatric patients who underwent surgical repair of cardiac TAPVC from 2013 to 2019 (connection to the coronary sinus [CS], n = 136; connection directly to the right atrium [RA], n = 32). Three-dimensional computed tomography modeling and geometric analysis were performed to investigate the morphological features; their relevance to the PPVS was examined.ResultsThe connection type had no association with PPVS (CS type: 18% vs right atrial type: 19%; P = .89) but there was a higher incidence of PPVS in patients with a single PV orifice than > 1 orifice (P < .001). Confluence-to-total PV area ratio (hazard ratio, 4.78, 95% CI, 1.86-12.32; P = .001) and length of drainage route (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.14-1.31; P < .001) had a 4- and 1-fold increase in the risk for PPVS in the CS type after adjustment for age and preoperative pulmonary venous obstruction. In the right atrial type, those with anomalous PV return to the RA roof were more likely to develop PPVS than to the posterior wall of the RA (P < .001).ConclusionsThe number of inter-junction PV orifice correlated with PPVS development in cardiac TAPVC. The confluence-to-total PV ratio, length of drainage route, and anomalous PV return to the RA roof are important predictors for PPVS. Morphological subcategorization in this clinical setting can potentially assist in surgical decision-making.  相似文献   
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Tarentola annularis is a climbing gecko with a wide distribution in Africa north of the equator. In the present paper, we describe the development of the osteocranium of this lizard, from the first appearance of the cranial elements up to the point of hatching. This is based on a combination of histology and cleared and stained specimens. This is the first comprehensive account of gekkotan pre-hatching skull development based on a comprehensive series of embryos, rather than a few selected stages. Given that Gekkota is now widely regarded as representing the sister group to other squamates, this account helps to fill a significant gap in the literature. Moreover, as many authors have considered features of the gekkotan skull and skeleton to be indicative of paedomorphosis, it is important to know whether this hypothesis is supported by delays in the onset of cranial ossification. In fact, we found the sequence of cranial bone ossification to be broadly comparable to that of other squamates studied to date, with no significant lags in development.  相似文献   
7.
Congenital heart disease is a rare but important finding in adults who experience sudden death. Examination of the congenitally malformed heart has historically been considered esoteric and best left to those with expertise. The Cardiac Risk in the Young cardiovascular pathology laboratory based at St George's University of London has now received over 6,000 cases. Of these, 21 congenitally malformed hearts were retained for research and educational purposes. Hearts were assessed using sequential segmental analysis, and causes of death were adjudicated based on thorough macroscopic examination and histology. Congenital malformations that were encountered included atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, and transposition of the great arteries in both its regular and congenitally corrected variants. Findings also included hearts with mirror-imaged and isomeric atrial appendages. Direct causes of death included myocardial fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and hemorrhage. A small but notable proportion did not reveal a substrate for arrhythmia, raising the question of whether the terminal event was due to the congenital heart disease itself, or an underlying channelopathy. Here, we demonstrate the value of simple sequential segmental analysis in describing and categorizing the cases, with the concept of the “morphological method” serving to identify the distinguishing features of the cardiac components. Clin. Anat. 33:394–404, 2020. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
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Recognition of <3 metastases in <2 organs, particularly in cancers with a known predisposition to oligometastatic disease (OMD) (colorectal, prostate, renal, sarcoma and lung), offers the opportunity to focally treat the lesions identified and confers a survival advantage. The reliability with which OMD is identified depends on the sensitivity of the imaging technique used for detection and may be predicted from phenotypic and genetic factors of the primary tumour, which determine metastatic risk. Whole-body or organ-specific imaging to identify oligometastases requires optimization to achieve maximal sensitivity. Metastatic lesions at multiple locations may require a variety of imaging modalities for best visualisation because the optimal image contrast is determined by tumour biology. Newer imaging techniques used for this purpose require validation. Additionally, rationalisation of imaging strategies is needed, particularly with regard to timing of imaging and follow-up studies. This article reviews the current evidence for the use of imaging for recognising OMD and proposes a risk-based roadmap for identifying patients with true OMD, or at risk of metastatic disease likely to be OM.  相似文献   
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目的分析钩虫病感染者血清免疫球蛋白(Ig)A、IgG、IgM和IgE水平,临床特点及胃肠镜下形态。方法分析16例钩虫病感染者的临床资料,观察患者的临床表现、Ig水平、血常规检查结果、胃肠镜检查结果及治疗结果。结果 16例患者的IgE水平明显高于正常参考上限值;IgA、IgG、IgM水平与正常参考上限值比较,差异不明显。经诊断患者的钩虫分布情况:十二指肠降部8例(50.00%),十二指肠球部5例(31.25%),回肠末端3例(18.75%),升结肠1例(6.25%),其中十二指肠及回肠末端均见钩虫者1例(6.25%)。所有患者均予阿苯达唑片驱虫治疗,治疗后1个月复查见贫血得到纠正,消化道症状得以缓解,复查胃肠镜未见虫体,均治愈。结论钩虫病感染者的IgE水平明显升高,胃肠镜检查是确诊钩虫病的重要手段,尤其是要加强对十二指肠降部的检查,并在确诊后及时给予正规治疗措施。  相似文献   
10.
Retinal fundus photographs are employed as standard diagnostic tools in ophthalmology. Serial photographs of the flow of fluorescein and indocyanine green (ICG) dye are used to determine the areas of the retinal lesions. For objective measurements of features, the registration of the images is a necessity. In this paper, we employ optimization techniques for registration with the help of 2-parameter translational motion model of retinal angiograms, based on non-linear pre-processing (Wiener filtering and morphological gradient) and computation of the similarity criteria for the alignment of the two gradient images for any given rigid transformation. The optimization methods are effectively employed to minimize the similarity criterion.

The presence of noise, the variations in the background and the temporal variation of the fluorescence level pose serious problems in obtaining a robust registration of the retinal images. Moreover, local search strategies are not robust in the case of ICG angiograms, even if one uses a multiresolution approach.

The present work makes a systematic comparison of different optimization techniques, namely the minimization method derived from the optical flow formulation, the Nelder-Mead local search and the HCIAC ant colony metaheuristic, each optimizing a similarity criterion for the gradient images. The impact of the resolution and median filtering of gradient image is studied and the robustness of the approaches is tested through experimental studies, performed on macular fluorescein and ICG angiographies.

Our proposed optimization techniques have shown interesting results especially for high resolution difficult registration problems. Moreover, this approach seems promising for affine (6-parameter motion model) or elastical registrations.  相似文献   

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