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人类微生物群是由寄生在人体上皮屏障的细菌和其他微生物组成的,其中大部分位于肠道内,与宿主之间形成共生的关系。机体肠道微生物的组成虽然受到年龄、饮食、生活方式等因素的影响,但在正常生理情况下是相对稳定的。近年来,肠道菌群与恶性肿瘤的关系越来越受到重视。肠道菌群不但能够维持局部稳态,还能调节机体代谢、炎症和免疫等生理过程。有研究表明,微生物群,特别是肠道菌群能够显著调节机体对癌症治疗的反应性以及机体对毒副反应的敏感性。检查肠道菌群中各菌种之间的比例可作为筛查恶性肿瘤的新方法。本文将综述微生物群具有影响肿瘤的发生发展、抗肿瘤治疗疗效以及药物不良反应的证据,以及其中所涉及的微生物种类,从而为恶性肿瘤精准治疗提供证据。  相似文献   
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of two synbiotic combinations, Lactobacillus fermentum with short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS-LF) and Bifidobacterium longum with isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO-BL), against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteropathogenic E. coli O86. Antimicrobial activity was determined (1) by co-culturing the synbiotics and pathogens in batch cultures, and (2) with the three-stage continuous culture system (gut model), inoculated with faecal slurry from an elderly donor. In the co-culture experiments, IMO-BL was significantly inhibitory to both E. coli strains, while FOS-LF was slightly inhibitory or not inhibitory. Factors other than acid production appeared to play a role in the inhibition. In the gut models, both synbiotics effectively inhibited E. coli O157 in the first vessel, but not in vessels 2 and 3. E. coli O86 was not significantly inhibited.  相似文献   
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基于调控肠道菌群探讨中药防治脑卒中   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:0  
肠道菌群是一个独特的生态系统,被称为人体"被遗忘的器官",被誉为人类的"第二基因组"。肠道菌群失调与许多中枢神经系统疾病相关,例如帕金森病、阿尔茨海默症、精神分裂症及多发性硬化等。脑卒中具有高的发病率、复发率、死亡率和致残率的特点。肠道菌群在脑卒中的发生、发展中起着关键的作用,可通过影响机体的吸收、代谢、血压、血糖、血脂及动脉粥样斑块等因素,进一步影响脑卒中的发病。中医认为脾胃气血流注失度、阴阳盛衰失衡,机体生理功能失调,化生"风、火、痰、虚、瘀"等病理产物,可致中风的发生。脾胃主腐熟运化水谷,肠道菌群影响饮食的消化吸收,现代研究的肠道菌群功能与中医之脾胃功能失调相关。因此,调整肠道菌群的稳态,可作为一个潜在的干预靶点预防和治疗缺血性脑卒中。中药干预脑卒中已经取得了很好的疗效,是否与调节肠道菌群有关,值得未来做进一步的研究。同时对中药有效成分(小檗碱、黄芩苷、白藜芦醇等),中药单方(丹参、红景天等)和中药组方(补阳还五汤、脑心通胶囊、补中益气汤等)防治脑缺血的研究进展进行综述,为缺血性脑卒中的预防和开发提供新的途径和思路。  相似文献   
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Paediatric palliative care and neurodisability are two relatively new, evolving paediatric sub-specialities that have increasing relevance in the current paediatric landscape. For many people palliative care has been synonymous with end of life care, but in paediatrics it encompasses much more and is for all children with life-threatening or life-limiting conditions, from the point of diagnosis. This breadth of focus is demonstrated well through the interface between paediatric palliative care and paediatric neurodisability. In this article we explore this unique interface through the three domains of complex symptom management, advanced care planning and end of life care. We describe the practicalities involved in all three areas and highlight the importance of early referral and the process of “dual” or “parallel” planning. We cover in more depth the specific management of the symptoms: dystonia/abnormalities of muscle tone, seizures, pain, agitation, secretions, respiratory failure, and gut failure.  相似文献   
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工作相关肌肉骨骼疾患(WMSDs)是常见的慢性非传染性疾病。WMSDs已成为影响工人健康、降低工人生命质量和造成经济损失的重要因素,可见于多个行业、工种。本文对WMSDs流行现状及人体工效学负荷相关研究进行综述,以期找到职业人群保护的可行方法。  相似文献   
9.
ABSTRACT

Although exclusive breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of postnatal HIV transmission compared to nonexclusive breastfeeding, mechanisms underlying this are unclear. Across a longitudinally sampled cohort of South African infants, we showed that exclusively breastfed (EBF) infants had altered gut bacterial communities when compared to nonexclusively breastfed (NEBF) infants, as well as reduced peripheral CD4 + T cell activation and lowered chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in the oral mucosa. We further demonstrated that the relative abundance of key taxa was correlated with peripheral CD4 + T cell activation. Here, we supplement those findings by using compositional data analyses to identify shifts in the abundance of several Bifidobacteria strains relative to select strains of Escherichia, Bacteroides, and others that are associated with the transition to NEBF. We illustrate that the abundance ratio of these taxa is tightly correlated with feeding modality and is a strong predictor of peripheral T cell activation. More broadly, we discuss our study in the context of novel developments and explore future directions for the field.  相似文献   
10.
Non alcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD is a disease with a large spectrum of liver injury that could appear in overweight or obese individuals with a metabolic syndrome. However, among overweight or obese, only a subset of individuals develops severe forms of NAFLD. Thus, the susceptibility of NAFLD is related to cofactors that could be protective or conversely noxious. Studies carried out in rodent models have demonstrated that the intestinal microbiota is a cofactor with a causal role in NAFLD. The bacterial patterns as well as the metabolites produced by intestinal bacteria are directly involved in the mediation of their effects, although the mechanisms are far from being fully identified. Changing intestinal microbiota by using fibers, prebiotics or probiotics can prevent or improve NAFLD in murine models. The translation of these data to human therapeutics is encouraging but remains limited. Indeed, there is clearly a dysbiosis associated with the different stages of NAFLD. The first clinical trials performed in patients to improve NAFLD showed beneficial effects although their analysis remains complicated given the many confounding factors, such as the use of metformin or proton inhibitors. A first clinical trial using a metabolite from Akkermansia muciniphila, suggests that new therapeutic approaches will emerge in the coming years based either on the modulation of the intestinal microbiota directly or on the modulation of intestinal microbiota targets.  相似文献   
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