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Acute diarrhea is a condition of increased water stool content, stool volume, and number of bowel movements that lasts less than 14 days. Mild diarrhea is usually self-limiting; however, undertreated moderate to severe diarrhea may cause severe dehydration and lead to hypovolemic shock. In order to prevent severe dehydration and treat patients appropriately, it is crucial for health care providers to determine the right diagnosis of patients with acute diarrhea. This article focuses on pathophysiology, general patient presentation, diagnostic tests and differential diagnosis lists of acute diarrhea to discuss which diagnosis should be made based on patient presentation and objective data.  相似文献   
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儿童处于生长发育特殊阶段,其颌面部解剖结构、牙列情况及心理状态与成年人有明显区别。颌面部骨折患儿常出现面部发育畸形、张口受限、咬合关系紊乱等,严重影响患儿的日常生活。因此,儿童颌面部骨折的诊疗一直是临床上的难题,也是国内外的研究热点。颌面部骨折好发于青少年,损伤原因多为意外跌倒、交通伤及运动伤。近年来,数字化外科技术为儿童颌面部骨折提供精确的诊断及微创的治疗。国内外学者对于儿童颌面部骨折治疗理念逐渐倾向于手术治疗,选择可吸收材料对儿童颌面部骨折进行固定,降低对儿童面部发育的影响。长期随访对于儿童颌面部骨折患儿具有重要意义,有助于监测患儿面部发育情况。此外,临床医生应注意患儿的心理状态。对于创伤较重或发现有心理问题的患儿,应尽早干预治疗。文章就近年儿童颌面部骨折流行病学特点、诊断、治疗原则及伴发的心理问题做一综述。  相似文献   
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目的:探讨环状RNA hsa_circ_0006867在结直肠癌中的表达及其与临床病理因素的关系。方法:全转录组测序筛选结直肠癌中特异circRNAs表达谱,挑选出差异表达显著的hsa_circ_0006867,qRT-PCR检测54例结直肠癌组织及癌旁组织中hsa_circ_0006867表达情况,分析其表达水平与结直肠癌临床病理特征的相关性,ROC曲线分析hsa_circ_0006867在结直肠癌中的诊断价值。结果:测序获得circRNAs在结直肠癌中的差异表达谱,qRT-PCR验证hsa_circ_0006867在结直肠癌中表达下调(P<0.05)。其表达水平与肿瘤分化程度和远处转移有关(P<0.05)。ROC曲线显示hsa_circ_0006867诊断结直肠癌AUC为0.851(95%CI:0.775~0.927),当截断值为0.0146时,敏感度为88.46%(95%CI:0.770~0.946),特异度为73.08%(95%CI:0.598~0.832),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.001)。结论:hsa_circ_0006867在结直肠癌中表达下调,与相关临床病理特征密切联系,可作为潜在结直肠癌临床诊断指标。  相似文献   
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癫痫发作后状态(PIS)是指癫痫发作停止到恢复至发病前水平的异常状态,包括认知、运动、感觉、自主神经和精神行为等异常,症状多样,严重程度不一,持续数秒至数天不等,对患者的健康和生活质量产生很大影响。然而,目前国内外相关的研究较少,临床医生对此缺乏正确认识,容易误诊误治。本文将从PIS的定义、病理生理机制、临床表现、诊断和鉴别诊断、临床意义以及干预策略等进行综述,以提高临床医生的认识,并为今后临床研究提供参考。  相似文献   
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目的 运用标准化患者法评估四川农村地区基层医生不稳定型心绞痛和2型糖尿病两种慢性病诊断准确性现状,探讨基层医生两种慢性病诊断准确性的主要影响因素,为提升基层医生两种慢性病诊断准确性提供科学依据。方法 采用多阶段随机整群抽样方法,抽取四川省自贡市5个区/县50个乡镇100个村为研究现场,以调查当日在岗的全科及内科医生作为研究对象。共进行两轮数据采集,第1轮采集样本乡镇卫生院和村卫生室医生的基本信息;第1轮调查完成1个月后,运用标准化患者法开展第2轮调查,收集农村基层医生对不稳定型心绞痛和2型糖尿病诊断结果信息。运用Logistic回归分析农村基层医生不稳定型心绞痛和2型糖尿病诊断准确性的影响因素。结果 共纳入172名农村基层医生,完成186次标准化患者访问,正确诊断率为48.39%。其中不稳定型心绞痛的正确诊断率为18.68%(17/91),2型糖尿病的正确诊断率为76.84%(73/95)。Logistic回归分析显示,具有执业医师资质的农村基层医生更有可能做出正确诊断(OR=4.857,95%CI=1.076~21.933,P=0.040)。农村基层医生在诊断过程中涉及的必要问诊和检查条目越多,做出正确诊断的概率越高(OR=1.627,95%CI=1.065~2.485,P=0.024)。与不稳定型心绞痛相比,农村基层医生对2型糖尿病做出正确诊断的可能性更高(OR=6.306,95%CI=3.611~11.013,P<0.001)。结论 四川农村基层医生不稳定型心绞痛和2型糖尿病诊断准确性整体较差,建议以基层医生慢性病诊断过程质量改善为突破口,提升基层医生执业水平,进而提高慢性病诊断准确性。  相似文献   
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Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is an important cause of mortality/morbidity even today despite advancement in clinical understanding as well as diagnostic facilities. Clinical diagnosis of PTE is often challenging because of nonspecific sign/symptoms. Adherence to clinical decision-making protocols and appropriate use of diagnostic modalities like computed tomography pulmonary angiography can resolve the diagnostic dilemma in most cases and help in the overall management of PTE. This article deals with various concerns as well as controversies surrounding accurate diagnosis of PTE as on date.  相似文献   
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The aim of the present review was to clarify how we should detect and diagnose sessile serrated polyps (SSP) endoscopically. A systematic search was conducted of MEDLINE from January 2004 through March 2018. Nine findings: (i) proximal location; (ii) size >10 mm; (iii) irregular shape; (iv) indistinctive border; (v) cloud‐like surface; (vi) mucus cap; (vii) rim of debris in white‐light endoscopy; (viii) dilated vessels; and (ix) dilated crypts (pits) in image‐enhanced endoscopy were considered to be candidate discriminators of SSP from hyperplastic polyps. Prospective studies in a general setting are warranted to validate the above‐mentioned endoscopic features of SSP during real‐time colonoscopy and to determine whether these features are useful for the differential diagnosis of SSP.  相似文献   
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BACKGROUND Approximately 20% of patients with neuroendocrine tumours(NETs) develop carcinoid syndrome(CS),characterised by flushing and diarrhoea.Somatostatin analogues or telotristat can be used to control symptoms of CS through inhibition of serotonin secretion.Although CS is often the cause of diarrhoea among patients with gastroenteropancreatic NETs(GEP-NETs),other causes to consider include pancreatic enzyme insufficiency(PEI),bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.If other causes of diarrhoea unrelated to serotonin secretion are mistaken for CS diarrhoea,these treatments may be ineffective against the diarrhoea,risking detrimental effects to patient quality of life.AIM To identify and synthesise qualitative and quantitative evidence relating to the differential diagnosis of diarrhoea in patients with GEP-NETs.METHODS Electronic databases(MEDLINE,Embase and the Cochrane Library) were searched from inception to September 12,2018 using terms for NETs and diarrhoea.Congresses,systematic literature review bibliographies and included articles were also hand-searched.Any study designs and publication types were eligible for inclusion if relevant data on a cause(s) of diarrhoea in patients with GEP-NETs were reported.Studies were screened by two independent reviewers at abstract and full-text stages.Framework synthesis was adapted to synthesise quantitative and qualitative data.The definition of qualitative data was expanded to include all textual data in any section of relevant publications.RESULTS Forty-seven publications(44 studies) were included,comprising a variety of publication types,including observational studies,reviews,guidelines,case reports,interventional studies,and opinion pieces.Most reported on PEI on/after treatment with somatostatin analogs;9.5%-84% of patients with GEP-NETs had experienced steatorrhoea or confirmed PEI.Where reported,14.3%–50.7% of patients received pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.Other causes of diarrhoea reported in patients with GEP-NETs included bile acid malabsorption(80%),small intestinal bacterial overgrowth(23.6%-62%),colitis(20%) and infection(7.1%).Diagnostic approaches included faecal elastase,breath tests,tauroselcholic(selenium-75) acid(Se HCAT) scan and stool culture,although evidence on the effectiveness or diagnostic accuracy of these approaches was limited.Assessment of patient history or diarrhoea characteristics was also reported as initial approaches for investigation.From the identified evidence,if diarrhoea is assumed to be CS diarrhoea,consequences include uncontrolled diarrhoea,malnutrition,and perceived ineffectiveness of CS treatment.Approaches for facilitating differential diagnosis of diarrhoea include improving patient and clinician awareness of non-CS causes and involvement of a multidisciplinary clinical team,including gastroenterologists.CONCLUSION Diarrhoea in GEP-NETs can be multifactorial with misdiagnosis leading to delayed patient recovery and inefficient resource use.This systematic literature review highlights gaps for further research on prevalence of non-CS diarrhoea and suitability of diagnostic approaches,to determine an effective algorithm for differential diagnosis of GEP-NET diarrhoea.  相似文献   
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