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Child benefits are typically paid from birth. This paper asks whether starting universal child benefits in pregnancy leads to improvements in infant health. Leveraging administrative birth registry and hospital microdata from England and Wales, I study the effects of the Health in Pregnancy Grant, a universal conditional cash transfer equivalent to three months of child benefit (190 GBP) as a lump sum to pregnant mothers from 2009 to 2011. I exploit quasi-experimental variation in eligibility with a regression discontinuity design in the date of birth of the baby. I find that the policy increased birth weight by 8–12 grams on average, reduced low birth weight (<2500 g) by 3-6 percent and decreased prematurity by 9–11 percent. Younger mothers, particularly those living in deprived areas, benefit the most. I present evidence that the mechanisms are unlikely to be antenatal care, nutrition or smoking, with reductions in stress remaining a possible explanation.  相似文献   
3.
Objective: A multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation programme, the Vocational Enablement Protocol (VEP) was developed to address the specific needs of employees with hearing difficulties. In the current study we evaluated the process of implementing the VEP in audiologic care among employees with hearing impairment. Design: In conjunction with a randomized controlled trial, we collected and analysed data on seven process parameters: recruitment, reach, fidelity, dose delivered, dose received and implemented, satisfaction, and perceived benefit. Study sample: Sixty-six employees with hearing impairment participated in the VEP. The multidisciplinary team providing the VEP comprised six professionals. Results: The professionals performed the VEP according to the protocol. Of the recommendations delivered by the professionals, 31% were perceived as implemented by the employees. Compliance rate was highest for hearing-aid uptake (51%). Both employees and professionals were highly satisfied with the VEP. Participants rated good perceived benefit from it. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the VEP could be a useful treatment for employees with hearing difficulties from a process evaluation perspective. Implementation research in the audiological setting should be encouraged in order to further provide insight into parameters facilitating or hindering successful implementation of an intervention and to improve its quality and efficacy.  相似文献   
4.
加强医疗仪器设备管理提高医疗仪器设备使用效益   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
加强医疗设备管理,提高设备使用效益,制定合理的计划,正确选购设备,为医院提供品种、性能、精度适当的技术装备。  相似文献   
5.
Development of the New Lung Allocation System in the United States   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
This article reviews the development of the new U.S. lung allocation system that took effect in spring 2005. In 1998, the Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services published the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) Final Rule. Under the rule, which became effective in 2000, the OPTN had to demonstrate that existing allocation policies met certain conditions or change the policies to meet a range of criteria, including broader geographic sharing of organs, reducing the use of waiting time as an allocation criterion and creating equitable organ allocation systems using objective medical criteria and medical urgency to allocate donor organs for transplant. This mandate resulted in reviews of all organ allocation policies, and led to the creation of the Lung Allocation Subcommittee of the OPTN Thoracic Organ Transplantation Committee. This paper reviews the deliberations of the Subcommittee in identifying priorities for a new lung allocation system, the analyses undertaken by the OPTN and the Scientific Registry for Transplant Recipients and the evolution of a new lung allocation system that ranks candidates for lungs based on a Lung Allocation Score, incorporating waiting list and posttransplant survival probabilities.  相似文献   
6.
医院综合效益评价中的权数(三)——估计权数   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
在医院综合效益评价中,估计权数由评价专家根据经验对评价指标的重要程度的一种评估,这类数据通常用的AHP法进行处理。本文用AHP的递推算法计算估计权数,这种算法不仅计算简单,而且易达到一致性的要求,其估计的剩余误差小于AHP法。  相似文献   
7.
《素问》用“俞”,《灵枢》用“输”与“腧”表示腧穴,三字用法基本相同。“俞”源于用船运送,“输”源于用车运送,均引申为转运气血的穴位。“腧”是“俞”的今字,其字形代表的意义最符合中医学中腧穴的含义。应以“腧”作为规范的词语,表示腧穴的各种意义。  相似文献   
8.
医德重建:传统医德危机及其解决途径探析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目前,我国面临的医德危机是非常严重的。如何解决这一危机就成了一个不容回避的重大课题,不少学者提出要用传统医德来规范医务人员,并以此作为解决该危机的良方。然而,这种以人格伦理为特质的传统医德尽管有其一定的合理性,但其在实践中的有效性却受到了人们的质疑。为此,试图从传统医德自身的局限性、医务人员利益意识的觉醒以及因社会失范而导致的越轨三个方面来分析我国医德危机产生的根源,并为此提出了三条对策。  相似文献   
9.
For planning or co-ordinating health services it is necessary to have reference points for evaluating similar departments in which homogeneous or equivalent activities are carried out. It is also necessary to consider the cost/benefit of the services. The paper presents several new indices of performance which may be applied to this problem and which enable quantitative comparisons to be made between hospitals and between departments. These indices include assessment of electrical hazards and service ability of equipment as well as the ratio of technical support staff to inpatient stay. The indices have been evaluated in a few large hospitals and found to be an effective management tool.  相似文献   
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