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BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated that academic and neuropsychological functions are compromised in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Investigation of the degree to which neuropsychological deficits might contribute to those academic problems is needed to aid in the recognition and intervention for school achievement difficulties in PBD. METHODS: A sample of 55 children and adolescents with PBD with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (PBD group, n = 28; PBD+ADHD group, n = 27) were tested with a computerized neurocognitive battery and standardized neuropsychological tests. Age range of subjects was 7-17 years, with the mean age of 11.97 (3.18) years. Parents completed a structured questionnaire on school and academic functioning. RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses indicated that executive function, attention, working memory, and verbal memory scores were poorer in those with a history of reading/writing difficulties. A separate logistic regression analysis found that attentional dysfunction predicted math difficulties. These relationships between neuropsychological function and academic difficulties were not different in those with PBD+ADHD than in those with PBD alone. CONCLUSIONS: In PBD neuropsychological deficits in the areas of attention, working memory, and organization/problem solving skills all contribute to academic difficulties. Early identification and intervention for these difficulties might help prevent lower academic achievement in PBD.  相似文献   
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Multiple regression analysis of twin data obtained from selected samples   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
The multiple regression analysis of twin data in which a cotwin's score is predicted from that of a proband (the member of a twin pair selected because of a deviant score) and the coefficient of relationship provides a powerful test of genetic etiology (DeFries and Fulker: Behav Genet 15:467-473, 1985). Moreover, when an augmented model containing an interaction term is fitted to the same data set, direct estimates of heritability (h2) and the proportion of variance owing to shared environmental influences (c2) are also obtained. In the present paper, the expected partial regression coefficients estimated from these models are derived, and the flexibility of the general approach is illustrated. An extended model is formulated for the analysis of data from combined samples of affected and control twin pairs that yields tests for differential h2 and c2 in the two groups as well as pooled estimates of these parameters. The application of these models is illustrated by an analysis of data from reading-disabled and control twin pairs. Because of the ease, flexibility, and utility of the multiple regression analysis of twin data, it is an appealing alternative to more traditional model-fitting approaches.  相似文献   
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纸本与数字的交互:手机阅读的最佳效果   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
随着全球3G商用的推进和拥有大容量存储能力的智能终端的日益普及,手机正逐步演变成为一个新型的数字阅读终端。利用手机进行电子阅读的全新模式,正以前所未有的普及速度冲击着人们的阅读习惯。而这趋势也逐渐为"阅读"进行重新的定义。对于每一个读者而言,在这样一个信息化的时代里,手机阅读和纸本阅读的交互使用、取长补短,才是获得最佳阅读效果的最有效方式。  相似文献   
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英语阅读障碍儿童词汇命名加工特征的研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
目的研究英语阅读障碍儿童操作英语词汇的相关能力 ,探索英语阅读障碍的表现特点与矫治的手段。方法英语真、假词命名实验 ,观察 3 4名阅读障碍儿童和 3 4名对照组儿童的实验结果。结果 ( 1)障碍组右视野在真、假词的命名时间上与对照组存在显著差异 ;( 2 )障碍组在真词和假词上的命名错误率均大于正常组 ,假词命名的错误率大幅增加。 ( 3 )障碍组右视野的真词命名时间明显长于左视野 ,假词命名的错误率也明显大于左视野。结论英语阅读障碍的儿童显示出了操作英语语音能力的欠缺以及左测大脑半球活动水平不足的倾向。  相似文献   
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The Low Vision Clinic at the Palmerston North Hospital has now been oerating for 70 years. Over the course of these ten years a number of factors have emerged which can be as readily applied to general ophthalmological practice as to low vision practice. The philosophy of low vision care is one of which all ophthalmologists should be aware and includes factors to be taken into account when dealing with children, people in the workplace, and everyday factors involved in daily living activities, all of which are equally relevant in routine ophthalmological practice. This paper endeavours to share some thoughts on these factors and also discusses means by which the visually handicapped can be helped in areas where specialist low vision services are not readily available.  相似文献   
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A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study involving 60 subjects, aged 6-18 years old, was conducted over a period of 3 months to determine the effect of Pycnogenol® (a proprietary mixture of water-soluble bioflavonoids extracted from French maritime pine) on mild-to-moderate asthma. After baseline evaluation, subjects were randomized into two groups to receive either Pycnogenol® or placebo. Subjects were instructed to record their peak expiratory flow with an Assess® Peak Flow Meter each evening. At the same time, symptoms, daily use of rescue inhalers (albuterol), and any changes in oral medications were also recorded. Urine samples were obtained from the subjects at the end of the run-in period, and at 1-, 2-, and 3-month visits. Urinary leukotriene C4/D4/E4 was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. Compared with subjects taking placebo, the group who took Pycnogenol® had significantly more improvement in pulmonary functions and asthma symptoms. The Pycnogenol® group was able to reduce or discontinue their use of rescue inhalers more often than the placebo group. There was also a significant reduction of urinary leukotrienes in the Pycnogenol® group. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of Pycnogenol® as an adjunct in the management of mild-to-moderate childhood asthma.  相似文献   
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现代生活中 ,儿童的语言和识字受家庭认知环境的影响。近年来无论从流行病学的研究 ,还是干预或神经生物的研究 ,均证实儿童早期经验是日后语言和识字能力发展的基础。在早期经验中 ,最关键的是父母与孩子之间的语言交流。通过这样的交流 ,促进儿童早期的语言发育 ,也促进儿童学龄期的阅读理解。儿童保健医生处于独特的位置 ,即在常规保健中指导父母根据不同年龄儿童的发育水平 ,应用有关的技能技巧 ,促进儿童的语言和识字。  相似文献   
10.
Contact dermatitis in patients with leg ulcers   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1  
100 patients with leg ulcers were patch tested against a standard battery of allergens. The readings were carried out daily from the 2nd to the 7th days. 55 patients showed positive reactions to one or more allergens. 32% of positive reactions developed for the first time after 48 h and 11% after 72 h. No single day or combination of two days gave 100% positive results. A single reading on the 4th day gave the highest number of positive reactions at 92%. The prevalence of positive patch tests was significantly higher in patients with surrounding eczema, and in patients with positive patch tests the ulcer duration was significantly longer than in those with negative patch tests. The total number of positive results in individuals increased linearly with the duration of the ulcer. Of allergens to which the ulcer was exposed, the occurrence of multiple sensitivity was significantly greater than predicted from the prevalence of individual sensitivities. However, there was no association between medicaments and metal sensitivity. This, together with the absence of an exponential rise in the number of allergens with the duration of ulcer, does not support the theory of systemic ampliative allergy.  相似文献   
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