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1.
目的:探讨右美托咪啶与芬太尼联合在ICU腹部外科术后机械通气患者中的应用效果及对镇静、镇痛作用的影响。方法:选择2018年5月—2019年6月ICU腹部外科术后机械通气患者62例,随机分为对照组(n=31例)和观察组(n=31例)。两组均采用芬太尼持续静脉泵入,对照组采用咪达唑仑镇静镇痛,观察组采用右美托咪啶镇静镇痛,比较两组镇痛镇静效果、镇静剂使用剂量、苏醒及达到镇静所需时间、血流动力学水平及安全性。结果:两组T2、T3时间点VAS评分分别为(2.40±0.31 vs 2.43±0.32和2.01±0.12 vs 2.05±0.15)、Ramsay量表评分分别(3.21±0.35 vs 3.20±0.33和3.01±0.25vs 3.00±0.24)均低于T1时间点(VAS评分2.94±0.69 vs 2.96±0.71;Ramsay量表评分3.57±0.61 vs 3.58±0.62)(P0.05);观察组右美托咪啶联合芬太尼镇痛镇静达到镇静所需时间(34.29±3.56) min长于对照组(23.63±3.21)(t=5.535,P=0.043);观察组镇静剂使用剂量(220.59±15.25)μg、苏醒时间(3.29±0.69)min均少(短)于对照组镇静剂使用剂量(386.44±18.92)μg、苏醒时间(7.56±1.21)min(t=6.294、6.092,P=0.023、0.025);两组T1、T2时间点心率[观察组T1(88.47±9.76)次/min、T2(86.41±9.43)次/min;对照组T1(89.53±10.41)次/min、T2(87.46±9.58)次/min]均高于T0时间点[观察组(78.78±4.35)次/min、对照组(79.12±4.41)次/min](P0.05);观察组T1、T2时间点MVP(79.58±5.71、87.53±6.76)mmHg高于对照组(74.12±4.69、75.26±5.61)mmHg(t=9.613、7.223,P=0.011、0.016);观察组的不良反应发生率为6.45%,与对照组的12.90%差异无统计学意义(χ~2=1.214, P=0.643)。结论:将右美托咪啶联合芬太尼用于ICU腹部外科术后机械通气患者中能获得良好的镇痛、镇静效果,缩短苏醒及达到镇静所需时间,血流动力学相对稳定,药物安全性较高,值得推广应用。  相似文献   
2.

Objectives

Expedient extubation after cardiac surgery has been associated with improved outcomes, leading to postoperative extubation frequently during overnight hours. However, recent evidence in a mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit population demonstrated worse outcomes with overnight extubation. This study investigated the impact of overnight extubation in a statewide, multicenter Society of Thoracic Surgeons database.

Methods

Records from 39,812 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or valve operations (2008-2016) and extubated within 24 hours were stratified according to extubation time between 06:00 and 18:00 (day) or between 18:00 and 6:00 (overnight). Outcomes including reintubation, mortality, and composite morbidity-mortality were evaluated using hierarchical regression models adjusted for Society of Thoracic Surgeons predictive risk scores. To further analyze extubation during the night, a subanalysis stratified patients into 3 groups: 06:00 to 18:00, 18:00 to 24:00, and 24:00 to 06:00.

Results

A total of 20,758 patients were extubated overnight (52.1%) and were slightly older (median age 66 vs 65 years, P < .001) with a longer duration of ventilation (4 vs 7 hours, P < .001). Day and overnight extubation were associated with equivalent operative mortality (1.7% vs 1.7%, P = .880), reintubation (3.7% vs 3.4%, P = .141), and composite morbidity-mortality (8.2% vs 8.0%, P = .314). After risk adjustment, overnight extubation was not associated with any difference in reintubation, mortality, or composite morbidity-mortality. On subanalysis, those extubated between 24:00 and 06:00 exhibited increased composite morbidity-mortality (odds ratio, 1.18; P = .001) but no difference in reintubation or mortality.

Conclusions

Extubation overnight was not associated with increased mortality or reintubation. These results suggest that in the appropriate clinical setting, it is safe to routinely extubate cardiac surgery patients overnight.  相似文献   
3.

Background and objective

Pressure ulcer (PU) is one of the important and frequent complications of hospitalization, associated with high treatment costs. The present study was conducted to determine the incidence of PU and its direct treatment costs for patients in intensive care unit (ICU) in Iran.

Material and methods

In this retrospective study, medical records of 643 discharged patients from ICU of two selected hospitals were examined. The demographic and clinical data of all patients and data of resources and services usage for patients with PU were extracted through their records. Data analysis was done using logistic regression tests in SPSS 22 software. The cost of PU treatment was calculated for each grade of ulcer.

Results

The findings showed that 8.9% of patients developed PU during their stay in ICU. Muscular paralysis (OR?=?5.1), length of stay in ICU (OR?=?4.0), diabetes (OR?=?3.5) age (OR?=?2.9), smoking (OR?=?2.1) and trauma (OR?=?1.4) were the most important risk factors of PU. The average cost of PU treatment varied from USD 12 for grade I PU to USD 66?834 for grade IV PUs. The total treatment costs for all studied patients with PU was estimated at USD 519?991.

Conclusion

The cost of PU treatment is significant. Since the preventive measures are more cost-effective than therapeutic measures, therefore, effective preventive interventions are recommended.  相似文献   
4.
目的探讨在外科ICU护理管理中实施层级质量控制的效果。方法选择2016年1-12月为实施前,2018年1-12月为实施后,实施前后均选取50例外科ICU患者及护理人员为研究对象,对实施前后外科ICU护理管理质量进行观察。结果实施后外科护理人员在工作人员素质、环境管理、护理质量管理及质量总分上均显著高于实施前(P<0.05);实施后ICU患者对护理管理的总满意率为98.00%,明显高于实施前总满意率86.00%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在外科ICU护理管理中,实施层级质量控制的护理管理模式,可显著提高ICU病房护理治疗,提高患者的满意率,值得推广。  相似文献   
5.
目的探讨护理教学查房在ICU教学中的临床应用效果。方法选定2018年1月-2019年1月来本院实习的100例学生,按照教学查房方法分为对照组(50例)与观察组(50例),前者采用传统教学查房方法,后者采用针对性教学查房方法。通过出科操作考试及理论考试后,比较2组实习学生的操作考核成绩、理论考核成绩指标。结果教学结束,观察组实习学生的操作考核成绩(94.11±3.54)分、理论考核成绩(85.74±5.39)分均高于对照组实习学生(P<0.05)。结论针对性教学查房方法可有效提高实习学生的操作考核成绩、理论考核成绩,改善其教学质量。  相似文献   
6.
目的探讨心理护理在ICU重症护理中的效果。方法选定本科于2017年6月-2019年8月收诊的ICU重症患者86例,等距抽样法分为对照组(43例,传统式护理)与观察组(43例,心理护理联合传统式护理)2组,比较2组ICU重症患者的护理满意率、情绪评分(SAS/SDS)指标。结果观察组ICU重症患者干预结束后的满意率高于对照组(P<0.05);观察组ICU重症患者干预结束后的SAS评分(32.52±3.26)分、SDS评分(30.09±3.45)分均低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论心理护理应用于ICU重症患者,可对其满意度、安全性进行保证。  相似文献   
7.
神经外科重症监护病房常见病原菌的分布与耐药性研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
目的调查珠江医院神经外科重症监护病房(ICU)病原菌的分布与耐药情况,分析ICU院内感染的发生原因,探讨防治对策。方法应用法国VITEKⅡ全自动细菌鉴定仪鉴定病原菌,用纸片扩散法检测药敏结果。结果神经外科ICU菌群主要以革兰阴性杆菌(71.6%)为主,鲍曼不动杆菌占16.7%,大肠埃希菌占15.7%,铜绿假单胞菌占13.7%,肺炎克雷伯菌占13.7%等。但葡萄球菌、粪肠球菌等阳性球菌(28.4%)也有增加的趋势。亚胺培南和头孢哌酮/舒巴坦仍保持最高抗菌活性,细菌的耐药率分别为15.3%和30.6%。结论我院神经外科ICU感染主要病原菌是革兰阴性杆菌,对常用抗菌药物耐药性较高,但革兰阳性球菌所占比例呈增高趋势。控制第二、三代头孢菌素以及制酸剂(质子泵抑制剂)的预防性用药,减少耐药菌株的产生,有针对性地使用抗生素是控制危重病人感染的有效措施。  相似文献   
8.
The present study included three periods: (1) a 12-month prerestriction and control period in 2001; (2) a 12-month restriction period with reduced ceftazidime prescribing in favor of piperacillin-tazobactam (2002); (3) and a 24 month postrestriction period (2003–2004). Note that, for results, P represents the difference between 2002 and 2001; P′, the difference between 2003 and 2001; and P″, the difference between 2004 and 2001. No changes in hygiene practices were observed during these three periods. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of reducing ceftazidime use in an intensive care unit (ICU) upon Gram-negative bacterial resistance, particularly as regards Pseudomonas aeruginosa. During the three periods of the study, patients were similar concerning age, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPSII), the site of nosocomial infection, and the requirements for mechanical ventilation (75% in 2001, 76% in 2002, 74% in 2003, and 85% in 2004). The most commonly isolated pathogens were P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterobacteriaceae. The use of ceftazidime decreased significantly from 12.6% in 2001 to 9% in 2002, to 3% in 2003 (P′ = 0.0009), and 2.6% in 2004 (P″ = 0.0001) in favor of piperacillin-tazobactam (0% 2001 to 3.7% in 2003; P′ = 0.002; and 5% in 2004; P″ = 0.0001). Simultaneously, we observed a significant decrease in isolates of P. aeruginosa resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam (P = 0.03; P′ = 0.004; P″ = 0.009), and those resistant to imipenem in 2003 (P′ = 0.008). We also noted a significant decrease in A. baumannii isolates resistant to ceftazidime (P′ = 0.01; P″ = 0.0004) and those resistant to imipenem in both 2002 and 2004 (P = 0.03; P″ = 0.04), and a considerable decrease in isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing expanded spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) in 2003 and 2004 (P′ = 0.04; P″ = 6.10−5). In contrast, we noted an increase in penicillinase-producing isolates of K. pneumoniae, from 6% in 2001 to 16% in 2002 (p = 0.01), 20% in 2003 (P′ = 0.001), and 32% in 2004 (P″ = 10−6). We concluded that restriction of ceftazidime use was demonstrated to be efficient in reducing antimicrobial resistance, especially to K. pneumoniae ESBL.  相似文献   
9.
本文通过复习相关文献资料,就早期胰岛素强化序贯治疗在ICU病人治疗中应用的几个主要方面进行扼要的综述,以利临床医生的参考。  相似文献   
10.
基层医院重症监护病房的医院感染特点及其对策   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
目的分析基层医院重症监护病房(ICU)的医院感染特点,提出相应的防范措施,以有效降低医院感染发生率. 方法以主动监测与系统回顾相结合的方法,对2003年全年入住ICU 383例患者的相关临床资料进行分析评判,并与全院住院患者进行对比. 结果 ICU的医院感染率是28.8%,显著高出同期的医院平均感染率23.6个百分点;因医院感染而导致死亡的占ICU总死亡的36%;ICU医院感染的病原菌以G-菌为主,占50%,而双重感染达78.7%;下呼吸道感染为医院感染的主要部位占61.7%,但多部位多器官感染占29.6%. 结论 ICU医院感染的特点是高发病率、高死亡率、高耐药性;其相关因素有病情重、年龄大、基础疾病多、侵入性诊疗操作多与交叉感染等.  相似文献   
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