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1.

Objective

The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of the state-based reinsurance programs through the section 1332 State Innovation Waivers on health insurance marketplace premiums and insurer participation.

Data Source

2015 to 2022 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Insurance Exchange Compare Datasets.

Study Design

An event study difference-in-differences (DD) model separately for each year of implementation and a synthetic control method (SCM) are used to estimate year-by-year effects following program implementation.

Data Collection/Extraction Methods

Not applicable.

Principal Findings

Reinsurance programs were associated with a decline in premiums in the first year of implementation by 10%–13%, 5%–19%, and 11%–17% for bronze, silver, and gold plans (p < 0.05). There is a trend of sustained declines especially for states that implemented their programs in 2019 and 2020. The SCM analyses suggest some effect heterogeneity across states but also premium declines across most states. There is no evidence that reinsurance programs affected insurer participation.

Conclusion

State-based reinsurance programs have the potential to improve the affordability of health insurance coverage. However, reinsurance programs do not appear to have had an effect on insurer participation, highlighting the need for policy makers to consider complementary strategies to encourage insurer participation.  相似文献   
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目的 观察结肠癌HCT116细胞健脾消癌方的条件培养液对HUVEC细胞管腔形成的影响,从PI3K/Akt生物轴调控角度探讨其作用机制。方法 培养HCT116细胞,细胞设3组:对照组,健脾消癌方组(加入15%健脾消癌方含药血清)及人参皂苷Rg3组;制备HCT116细胞健脾消癌方条件培养液(分组及制备方法见实验方法),用条件培养液干预HUVEC(脐静脉内皮细胞,Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells),Matrigel基质胶法检测HCT116细胞健脾消癌方条件培养液对HUVEC小管形成的影响。随后采用蛋白免疫印迹法(Western blot)检测各组HCT116细胞磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(PI3K)、蛋白激酶B(Akt)、p-Akt、VEGF(血管内皮生长因子,Vascular endothelial growth factor)蛋白表达。最后在结肠癌HCT116荷瘤小鼠中验证健脾消癌方对肿瘤生长速度的影响,并经瘤组织VEGF蛋白表达、CD31免疫组化染色检测肿瘤内血管生成情况。结果 模型组HUVEC细胞管腔形成较空白血清组显著增加(P<0.05);健脾消癌方组及人参皂苷Rg3组较模型组HUVEC细胞管腔形成显著减少(P<0.01)。p-Akt和VEGF蛋白表达水平模型组高于空白血清组(P<0.05),健脾消癌方组及人参皂苷Rg3组显著低于模型组(P<0.01);PI3K、Akt蛋白表达量组间差异无统计学意义。与对照组比较,模型组荷瘤小鼠肿瘤体积显著性增大,瘤组织内VEGF表达、CD31阳性面积显著性增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与模型组比较,健脾消癌方组及人参皂苷Rg3组荷瘤小鼠肿瘤体积显著减小,瘤组织内VEGF表达、CD31阳性面积降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 健脾消癌方可抑制肿瘤的血管生成和生长,其作用机制可能与PI3K/Akt生物轴调控VEGF表达有关。  相似文献   
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Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Progression to cancer typically occurs in a stepwise fashion through worsening dysplasia and ultimately, invasive neoplasia. Established EAC with deep involvement of the esophageal wall and/or metastatic disease is invariably associated with poor long-term survival rates. This guides the rationale of surveillance of Barrett’s in an attempt to treat lesions at an earlier, and potentially curative stage. The last two decades have seen a paradigm shift in management of Barrett’s with rapid expansion in the role of endoscopic eradication therapy (EET) for management of dysplastic and early neoplastic BE, and there have been substantial changes to international consensus guidelines for management of early BE based on evolving evidence. This review aims to assist the physician in the therapeutic decision-making process with patients by comprehensive review and summary of literature surrounding natural history of Barrett’s by histological stage, and the effectiveness of interventions in attenuating the risk posed by its natural history. Key findings were as follows. Non-dysplastic Barrett’s is associated with extremely low risk of progression, and interventions cannot be justified. The annual risk of cancer progression in low grade dysplasia is between 1%-3%; EET can be offered though evidence for its benefit remains confined to highly select settings. High-grade dysplasia progresses to cancer in 5%-10% per year; EET is similarly effective to and less morbid than surgery and should be routinely performed for this indication. Risk of nodal metastases in intramucosal cancer is 2%-4%, which is comparable to operative mortality rate, so EET is usually preferred. Submucosal cancer is associated with nodal metastases in 14%-41% hence surgery remains standard of care, except for select situations.  相似文献   
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Cantharidin (CTD) is an effective antitumor agent. However, it exhibits significant hepatotoxicity, the mechanism of which remains unclear. In this study, biochemical and histopathological analyses complemented with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)-based targeted metabolomic analysis of bile acids (BAs) were employed to investigate CTD-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Sixteen male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and CTD (1.0 mg/kg) groups. Serum and liver samples were collected after 28 days of intervention. Biochemical, histopathological, and BA metabolomic analyses were performed for all samples. Further, the key biomarkers of CTD-induced hepatotoxicity were identified via multivariate and metabolic pathway analyses. In addition, metabolite–gene–enzyme network and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses were used to identify the signaling pathways related to CTD-induced hepatotoxicity. The results revealed significantly increased levels of biochemical indices (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bile acid). Histopathological analysis revealed that the hepatocytes were damaged. Further, 20 endogenous BAs were quantitated via UHPLC-MS/MS, and multivariate and metabolic pathway analyses of BAs revealed that hyocholic acid, cholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid were the key biomarkers of CTD-induced hepatotoxicity. Meanwhile, primary and secondary BA biosynthesis and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism were found to be associated with the mechanism by which CTD induced hepatotoxicity in rats. This study provides useful insights for research on the mechanism of CTD-induced hepatotoxicity.  相似文献   
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