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1.
维生素D有免疫调控和抗感染作用,低维生素D水平与新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)的患病风险和不良预后相关,这些线索提示补充维生素D可能起到预防和治疗COVID-19的作用。但是根据现有的临床试验结果,尚无足够证据支持常规应用大剂量维生素D来防控疫情。在更多临床试验数据公布前,我们仍然应当积极倡导日常规律补充维生素D制剂来纠正维生素D缺乏。  相似文献   

2.
新型冠状病毒感染(COVID-19)是一种全球性流行病,其大流行给全球带来了巨大的健康和经济负担,既往存在心血管疾病的病人在COVID-19中发生不良后果的风险很高。此外,COVID-19与多种心血管并发症有关,包括心律失常、心肌损伤、心肌病和血栓事件等。COVID-19和COVID-19相关心血管并发症的易感性增加可能与免疫失调和相关炎症机制有关。维生素D具有免疫、抗炎及心血管系统的保护作用,其在COVID-19免疫和心血管健康中的作用越来越受到关注。本研究就维生素D与心血管疾病、COVID-19的相关性及相关心血管并发症发生的机制进行综述。  相似文献   

3.
目前,新型冠状病毒(2019-nCoV)感染导致的新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19),已在我国及全球70余国家迅速蔓延,成为全世界高度关注的公共卫生事件。2019-nCoV感染后除发热和呼吸道症状外,常出现不同程度的肝损伤。综述了COVID-19相关肝损伤的临床特征、病理、致病机制及治疗策略,以期为COVID-19的防治提供临床决策参考。  相似文献   

4.
目的 由新型冠状病毒(SARS-CoV-2)引起的新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)疫情已引起世界范围的大流行。呼吸道被认为是SARS-CoV-2感染的主要靶器官。部分COVID-19患者会出现不同程度的肝损伤。本文对COVID-19相关肝损伤发生机制研究进展进行了综述,以期为该病的防治提供参考。  相似文献   

5.
新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)于2019年12月在中国武汉出现,后经确认为新型冠状病毒感染所致,该新型冠状病毒属于β冠状病毒属,与人类SARS冠状病毒及中东呼吸综合征冠状病毒类似,均可感染人类。该肺炎虽主要引起呼吸道症状,但报道称部分患者合并心肌损伤。本综述简要探讨COVID-19合并心肌损伤可能机制,为抗疫一线医师治疗合并心肌损伤的COVID-19患者提供参考。  相似文献   

6.
截至4月12日,新型冠状病毒播散至全球211个国家和地区,累计174余万人确诊新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19),超过10万人因感染而死亡,对公众健康造成严重威胁[1]。许多患者除呼吸系统损伤外,还表现不同程度的肝脏损伤[2,3],及时修复患者肝损伤,有利于肺炎患者的康复[4]。1 COVID-19患者肝损伤的机制许多COVID-19患者存在不同程度的肝功能损伤,Chen等[5]通过对99例患者的研究发现,超过40%的COVID-19患者在病程中出现不同程度肝功能损伤。  相似文献   

7.
新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)是由新型冠状病毒(2019-nCov)引起的急性呼吸道传染性疾病,是一种新型传染病。目前对COVID-19及其病原体2019-nCov知之甚少,尚未发现特效治疗药物。国内外尚无COVID-19治疗过程中出现AP的报道,本文报道1例COVID-19并发AP的病例并复习相关文献,以期分析其致病原因,为临床医师识别和处理提供参考。  相似文献   

8.
由新型冠状病毒(SARS-CoV-2)感染引起的新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)严重威胁人类健康。随着确诊病例数增加和研究深入,发现COVID-19主要侵犯呼吸系统,还可累及心肌及其他重要脏器。本文对COVID-19相关心肌损伤的病理生理学机制、临床特征、影像学评估等进行综述,以期为COVID-19患者心肌损伤的早期诊治及预后评估提供帮助。  相似文献   

9.
自2019年12月以来,新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)疫情发展迅速。随着病例资料的积累,我们发现COVID-19患者除表现出典型呼吸系统症状和体征,还出现了不同程度的肝功能异常表现。本文将结合新型冠状病毒(SARS-CoV-2)感染所致的肝功能损伤表现及相关文献进行总结和分析,提出SARS-CoV-2可能引起肝损伤的机制。  相似文献   

10.
由严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒2(SARS-CoV-2)引起的2019年冠状病毒疾病(COVID-19)已经在全球多个国家引起大流行,该病毒传染性强、致死率高,部分变异株在病毒传播性、致病性和免疫原性等多方面发生变化。无症状感染和有症状感染的COVID-19患者在免疫特征上存在异质性;不同年龄阶段的COVID-19患者的临床表现也不尽相同。目前无治疗COVID-19的特效药物,疫情控制需依赖新型冠状病毒疫苗的接种,如核酸疫苗、灭活疫苗、病毒载体疫苗、蛋白质疫苗等。本文通过对新型冠状病毒的变异、临床表现、治疗和疫苗等方面文献的复习,展现目前相关研究的进展。  相似文献   

11.
Most adenomas and carcinomas of the small intestine and extrahepatic bile ducts arise in the region of the papilla of Vater. In familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) it is the main location for carcinomas after proctocolectomy. In many cases symptoms due to stenosis lead to diagnosis at an early tumor stage. In about 80%, curative intended resection is possible. Operability is the most relevant prognostic factor. Most ampullary carcinomas resp. carcinomas of the papilla of Vater develop from adenomatous or flat dysplastic precursor lesions. They can be sited in the ampulloduodenal part of the papilla of Vater, which is lined by intestinal mucosa. They also can develop in deeper parts of the ampulla, which are lined by pancreaticobiliary duct mucosa. Intestinal-type adenocarcinoma and pancreaticobiliary-type adenocarcinoma represent the main histological types of ampullary carcinoma. Furthermore, there exist unusual types and undifferentiated carcinomas. Many carcinomas of intestinal type express the immunohistochemical marker profile of intestinal mucosa (keratin 7?, keratin 20+, MUC2+). Carcinomas of pancreaticobiliary type usually show the immunohistochemical profile of pancreaticobiliary duct mucosa (keratin 7+, keratin 20?, MUC2?). Even poorly differentiated carcinomas, as well as unusual histological types, may conserve the marker profile of the mucosa they developed from. These findings underline the concept of histogenetically different carcinomas of the papilla of Vater which develop either from intestinal- or from pancreaticobiliary-type mucosa of the papilla of Vater. Molecular alterations in ampullary carcinomas are similar to those of colorectal as well as pancreatic carcinomas, although they appear at different frequencies. In future studies, molecular alterations in ampullary carcinomas should be correlated closely with the different histologic tumor types. Consequently, the histologic classification should reflect the histogenesis of ampullary tumors from the two different types of papillary mucosa.  相似文献   

12.
Summary Palmitic acid oxidation in rat diaphragm homogenate is depressed by biguanide concentrations that are still incapable of inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation. Glucose oxidation is not directly effected by the same biguanide concentrations: however, the inhibitory effect of palmitic acid on glucose oxidation is partly removed by biguanides. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation, which accounts for most of the metabolic effects caused by these drugs, can be regarded as the fundamental mechanism of action of biguanides. There is some evidence suggesting that these drugs might interact with carnitine, thus preventing long-chain fatty acids from being transported across the mitochondrial membrane to the site of oxidation. Traduzione a cura degli AA.  相似文献   

13.
目的胰岛素瘤是最常见的胰腺神经内分泌肿瘤,因其临床表现多样,导致诊断困难。影像学诊断尤其是超声内镜(EUS)在胰岛素瘤的诊断中起着重要作用,拥有较高的敏感性和特异性。本研究拟通过明确胰岛素瘤的解剖分布特点,以期有助于提高影像学的诊断准确率和降低漏诊率,尤其是在教育和培训实践中对于EUS的学习者更具有指导价值。 方法回顾性分析解放军总医院第一医学中心病案资料数据库1993年1月至2019年11月经外科手术、病理确诊为胰岛素瘤的患者的临床资料,检索方法采取搜索术后病理诊断为"胰岛素瘤"的病例,通过查阅病例的方法,提取出胰岛素瘤的大小和解剖分布等数据,进一步分析其特点。 结果共检索到确诊为胰岛素瘤的患者116例,其中,男45例、女71例,年龄13~76岁,平均年龄(44.4±14.85)岁。胰岛素瘤单发110例(94.8%)、多发6例(5.2%)。位置分布:头颈部46例(39.7%),单发45例、多发1例;体尾部68例(58.6%),单发65例、多发3例;全胰腺多发2例(1.7%)。病变大小特点:最大径0.4~3.4 cm,平均大小(1.53±0.58)cm。≤1 cm 29例、>1 cm而≤1.5 cm41例、>1.5 cm而≤2.0 cm28例,≤3 cm 15例,>3 cm 3例。年龄与肿瘤的大小相关,≤44岁患者肿瘤平均大小为(1.36±0.51)cm、>44岁患者肿瘤平均大小为(1.70±0.60)cm,P<0.05。头颈部的肿瘤大于体尾部的肿瘤,头颈部肿瘤平均大小(1.66±0.63)cm,体尾部(1.42±0.52)cm,P<0.05。 结论胰岛素瘤在胰腺体尾部较头颈部更好发;绝大多数单发,但可以全胰腺多发;多数小于1.5 cm,肿瘤的大小与患者年龄和肿瘤的解剖分布相关。  相似文献   

14.
氯硝柳胺悬浮剂的毒性评价   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:2  
目的评价氯硝柳胺悬浮剂的毒性,为现场大规模应用灭螺提供依据。方法按照中华人民共和国国家标准GB 15670-1995《农药登记毒理学试验方法》和鱼类毒性试验方法进行。结果经口、经皮肤的LDso雌、雄性大鼠均>5 000 mg/kg,经呼吸道的LCso雌、雄性大鼠均>5 000mg/m3,该药经口、经皮肤、经呼吸道毒性均属微毒类药物;兔眼用药后,观察期内无不良反应,对眼无刺激性;皮肤用药后对皮肤无刺激性。与氯硝柳胺原药、氯硝柳胺乙醇胺盐原药和氯硝柳胺乙醇胺盐可湿性粉剂相比,氯硝柳胺悬浮剂对鱼急性毒性最低。结论氯硝柳胺悬浮剂属微毒类药物,对鱼的毒性低于其乙醇胺盐可湿性粉剂,适合于现场应用。  相似文献   

15.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Both the clinical presentation and the degree of mucosal damage in coeliac disease vary greatly. In view of conflicting information as to whether the mode of presentation correlates with the degree of villous atrophy, we reviewed a large cohort of patients with coeliac disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We correlated mode of presentation (classical, diarrhoea predominant or atypical/silent) with histology of duodenal biopsies and examined their trends over time. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 499 adults, mean age 44.1 years, 68% females. The majority had silent coeliac disease (56%) and total villous atrophy (65%). There was no correlation of mode of presentation with the degree of villous atrophy (p=0.25). Sixty-eight percent of females and 58% of males had a severe villous atrophy (p=0.052). There was a significant trend over time for a greater proportion of patients presenting as atypical/silent coeliac disease and having partial villous atrophy, though the majority still had total villous atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: Among our patients the degree of villous atrophy in duodenal biopsies did not correlate with the mode of presentation, indicating that factors other than the degree of villous atrophy must account for diarrhoea in coeliac disease.  相似文献   

16.
血吸虫童虫是宿主免疫系统攻击的重要靶标,包括皮肤型、肺型和肝门型童虫。宿主分子对童虫生长发育具有重要作用。童虫生长发育机制包括免疫调节、信号转导、性别发育及凋亡等。肌动蛋白、组织蛋白酶、烯醇化酶和葡萄糖基转移酶等分子为血吸虫童虫生长发育的重要分子。本文对血吸虫童虫生长发育及其机制的研究进展做一综述。  相似文献   

17.
目的对临床分离的耐多药结核分枝杆菌相关基因的突变特征进行分析。方法对124例耐多药结核分枝杆菌以及50株敏感株的耐药相关基因(包括异烟肼inh A、kat G、oxyR-ahp C间隔区以及利福平rpo B)进行序列测定,分析其基因突变情况。结果异烟肼耐药inh A基因突变率为14.5%;kat G基因突变率为70.2%(87/124),主要位于315位;oxyR-ahp C间隔区突变率为15.3%;inh A、kat G两种基因同时突变率75.0%,三种基因同时突变率为89.5%。利福平rpo B基因突变的检出率高达95.2%,突变主要发生在531、526、516位点。结论我省耐多药菌异烟肼耐药相关基因最常见突变为kat G 315、inh A C-T(-15)、axyR-ahp C间隔区(-10)C-T,利福平为rpo B531、526、516。结合MDR-TB耐药相关基因的特征分析,可以建立一种快速、准确、特异的适合于我省的检测结核菌耐多药性的新方法。  相似文献   

18.
The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and the psychological status of parents of children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). The QOL, anxiety and depression of the parents of 28 children with JCA were evaluated and compared to those of the parents of 28 healthy children. Mothers of JCA children and mothers of healthy children reported similar QOL. The reported anxiety and depression levels were similar for mothers and fathers in both groups. The parents of children with pauciarticular-type JCA reported lower QOL and higher levels of anxiety and depression than the parents of children with other types, namely polyarticular and systemic JCA. These findings may be explained by the fact that the pauciarticular patients had shorter disease duration and were less frequently seen in the outpatient clinic. The QOL of mothers of children with JCA was found to be slightly impaired in the group of children with pauciarticular JCA. Future larger studies are needed to confirm these results, as the number of subjects in the three groups was rather low. Received: 26 September 2001 / Accepted: 8 February 2002  相似文献   

19.
研究幽门螺杆菌(Hp)感染与胃炎的关系。方法对204例慢性胃炎患者胃粘膜进行观察分析,并测定其中137例Hp阳性患者血清CagA-Hp抗体IgG水平,与组织学对照。结果慢性萎缩性胃炎伴肠上皮化生患者血清CagA抗体IgG明显高于对照组(P<0.01);其他类型胃炎患者血清CagA抗体IgG水平无明显增高(P>0.05)。结论CagA-Hp可能是导致慢性萎缩性胃炎伴肠上皮化生的因素之一,对这类患者应密切随访观察。  相似文献   

20.
目的探讨慢性阻塞性肺病急性加重期(AECOPD)患者预后的相关危险因素。方法回顾性调查、收集58例AECOPD患者可能影响其预后的相关因素,并对其分别进行单因素分析。并进行Logistic多元逐步回归进行多因素分析,筛选影响AECOPD患者预后的独立危险因素。结果单因素分析后将结果 P0.1的因素纳入多因素Logistic回归,分析发现是否合并呼吸衰竭、气促程度、白细胞计数、APACHEⅡ、应用抗氧化剂、慢阻肺治疗依从性为影响AECOPD患者预后不佳的独立因素(P0.05)。结论根据AECOPD患者预后的独立危险因素,及早判断,选择合适的后续治疗方案,对提高其生存率及生存质量具有重要意义。  相似文献   

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