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1.
Relying on a certain degree of abstraction, we can propose that no particular distinction exists between animate or living matter and inanimate matter. While focusing attention on some specifics, the dividing line between the two can be drawn. The most apparent distinction is in the level of structural and functional organization with the dissimilar streams of ‘energy flow’ between the observed entity and the surrounding environment. In essence, living matter is created from inanimate matter which is organized to contain internal intense energy processes and maintain lower intensity energy exchange processes with the environment. Taking internal and external energy processes into account, we contend in this paper that living matter can be referred to as matter of dissipative structure, with this structure assumed to be a common quality of all living creatures and living matter in general. Interruption of internal energy conversion processes and terminating the controlled energy exchange with the environment leads to degeneration of dissipative structure and reduction of the same to inanimate matter, (gas, liquid and/or solid inanimate substances), and ultimately what can be called ‘death.’ This concept of what we call dissipative nature can be extended from living organisms to social groups of animals, to mankind. An analogy based on the organization of matter provides a basis for a functional model of living entities. The models relies on the parallels among the three central structures of any cell (nucleus, cytoplasm and outer membrane) and the human body (central organs, body fluids along with the connective tissues, and external skin integument). This three-part structural organization may be observed almost universally in nature. It can be observed from the atomic structure to the planetary and intergalactic organizations. This similarity is corroborated by the membrane theory applied to living organisms. According to the energy nature of living matter and the proposed functional model, the decreased integrity of a human body's external envelope membrane is a first cause of the structural degradation and aging of the entire organism. The aging process than progresses externally to internally, as in single cell organisms, suggesting that much of the efforts towards the restoration and maintenance of the mechanisms responsible for structural development should be focused accordingly, on the membrane, i.e., the skin. Numerous reports indicate that all parts of the human body, like: bones, blood with blood vessels, muscles, skin, and so on, have some ability for restoration. Therefore, actual revival of not only aging tissue of the human body's membrane, but the entire human body enclosed within, with all internal organs, might be expected. We assess several aging theories within the context of our model and provide suggestions on how to activate the body's own anti-aging mechanisms and increase longevity. This paper presents some analogies and some distinctions that exist between the living dissipative structure matter and inanimate matter, discusses the aging process and proposes certain aging reversal solutions.  相似文献   

2.
The immunoneuroendocrine role of melatonin   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
Abstract: A tight, physiological link between the pineal gland and the immune system is emerging from a series of experimental studies. This link might reflect the evolutionary connection between self-recognition and reproduction. Pinealectomy or other experimental methods which inhibit melatonin synthesis and secretion induce a state of immunodepression which is counteracted by melatonin. In general, melatonin seems to have an immunoenhancing effect that is particularly apparent in immunodepressive states. The negative effect of acute stress or immunosuppressive pharmacological treatments on various immune parameters are counteracted by melatonin. It seems important to note that one of the main targets of melatonin is the thymus, i.e., the central organ of the immune system. The clinical use of melatonin as an immunotherapeutic agent seems promising in primary and secondary immunodeficiencies as well as in cancer immunotherapy. The immunoenhancing action of melatonin seems to be mediated by T-helper cell-derived opioid peptides as well as by lymphokines and, perhaps, by pituitary hormones. Melatonin-induced-immuno-opioids (MHO) and lymphokines imply the presence of specific binding sites or melatonin receptors on cells of the immune system. On the other hand, lymphokines such as -γ-interferon and interleukin-2 as well as thymic hormones can modulate the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland. The pineal gland might thus be viewed as the crux of a sophisticated immunoneuroendocrine network which functions as an unconscious, diffuse sensory organ.  相似文献   

3.
Abstract: The effect of swimming at night on rat pineal melatonin synthesis was compared with that of light exposure at night. Rats were forced to swim at 0030 hr (lights out at 2000 hr) and sacrificed by decapitation 15 and 30 min later, immediately after swimming. Other groups of animals were exposed to white light (650μW/cm2) for 15 and 30 min at same time. Swimming caused a rapid and highly significant drop in the melatonin content in the pineal gland; however, the activity of N-acetyltransferase (NAT), the supposed rate limiting enzyme in the melatonin production, was not changed. Despite the drop in pineal melatonin levels, serum concentrations of the indole remained elevated in the rats that swam. In contrast, melatonin levels in the pineal and serum of light exposed rats fell precipitously, accompanied by a significant suppression of NAT activity. Since we anticipated that the strenuous exercise associated with swimming may induce release of artrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) from the heart, which in turn could cause the release of pineal melatonin, in a second study we injected physiological saline intravenously to stretch the cardiac muscle and release ANP. Three milliliters of normal saline was injected during the day into the jugular vein of anesthetized rats that were pretreated with isoproterenol to stimulate pineal melatonin production. Animals were killed 15 min after the saline injection, and pineal NAT activity and pineal melatonin levels were measured. The saline injections caused no alteration in the elevated levels of either NAT or melatonin. These data suggest that the disparity in pineal NAT activity (which was high) and pineal melatonin (which was low), in animals swum at night, may not be caused by ANP which is released during strenuous exercise such as swimming.  相似文献   

4.
Abstract: Well-established circadian physiology supports the view that photoperiodic time measurement utilizes the coincidence between the presence of light and a photosensitive phase of a 'biological clock' to alter reproductive status—the so-called external coincidence model of seasonal breeding. In this review, we examine the mechanism whereby photoperiod interacts with presumed suprachiasmatic nuclei activity to allow endogenous melatonin to normally synchronize reproductive activity to the optimal time of year. The Romney Marsh sheep is particularly explored as an experimental model. It is suggested that the on/off activity of seasonal reproduction may be a robust mechanism able to be predictably manipulated by the judicious use of the light/dark cycle and exogenous melatonin, but firmly based on circadian principles.  相似文献   

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Abstract: Herein we documented the response of pineal melatonin production to electrolytes known to be effective on pineal function in view of a possible circadian stage dependence. We studied the release of melatonin by perifused rat pineal glands at 2 different circadian stages corresponding to the middle of the light and dark periods, i.e., respectively, 7 and 19 HALO (Hours After Light Onset, L:D = 12:12). The initial efflux rates were, as expected, much higher in the perifusates of glands removed from rats sacrificed during the dark phase than of those removed during the light phase. After 3 hr of perifusion, melatonin release reached similar levels which were found constant up to the 8th hr of perifusion, whatever the circadian stage. Perifusion of the glands with physiological concentrations for the rat of calcium (5.2 mmol/1) and magnesium (1.34 mmol/1) resulted in a stimulatory effect on the pineal glands removed from rats sacrificed in the middle of the dark period (19 HALO), whereas no effects were observed on the pineal glands removed from rats sacrificed during the light (7 HALO). Lithium (0.28 and 0.55 mmol/1) was ineffective on melatonin release in pineal glands removed 7 and 19 HALO. Our results show differences in the initial efflux rates of melatonin and in the response of perifused pineal glands to calcium and magnesium according to the circadian stage.  相似文献   

7.
Duodenal diverticula are a relatively common condition. They are asymptomatic, unless they become complicated, with perforation being the rarest but most severe complication. Surgical treatment is the most frequently performed approach. We report the case of a patient with a perforated duodenal diverticulum, which was diagnosed early and treated conservatively with antibiotics and percutaneous drainage of secondary retroperitoneal abscesses. We suggest this method could be an acceptable option for the management of similar cases, provided that the patient is in good general condition and without septic signs.  相似文献   

8.
Abstract: The abundance of gap junctions between rat pineal astrocytes formed by connexin43 (Cx43) was studied during development. Levels and distribution of Cx43 were measured by immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence, respectively. The amount of Cx43 in cells located within the gland was low until about the 7th postnatal day and increased to adult values between the 14th and 21st days postpartum. Although astrocytes, recognized by their vimentin immunoreactivity, were scarce before birth, they were abundant by the 7th postnatal day suggesting that the low levels of Cx43 found at this age corresponded to a low expression of this protein. Localization of the immunoreactivity to Cx43 and vimentin showed a close correlation, indicating that mature or immature pineal astrocytes form gap junctions made of Cx43. Since Cx43 levels attained their adult values at about the time the innervation and the functional state of the gland reached maturity (2–3 weeks after birth), it is proposed that astrocyte gap junctions are involved in the function of the adult rat pineal gland.  相似文献   

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Abstract: The use of antisera raised against bovine growth hormone (GH) and ovine prolactin (PRL) enabled the detection of related immunoreactive (ir) sequences of proteins in ovine pineal tissue. The isolation of PRL-like ir-material was accomplished using a 0.25 M ammonium sulphate (pH 5.5) extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, whereas the resulting 2.0 M ammonium sulphate (pH 7.0) precipitate contained a GH-like immunoreactivity. Gel chromatography of the GH-like immunoreactivity (Sephadex G-100) indicated the presence of several GH-like fragments ranging in the Mr range of 7,000 to 55,000. Analyses of the PRL-like ir-material found in pineal tissue on HPLC using a TSK 545-DEAE column led to the resolution into a single peak of immunoreactivity. A single peak of activity was also observed following chromatofocusing and hydrophobic interaction chromatography of the ir-peak from the TSK 545-DEAE column. The PRL-like ir-material inhibited the binding of [125I]ovine PRL-S14 to anti-ovine PRL antibodies without showing an affinity for binding to anti-rat PRL or anti-bovine GH antibodies. Scatchard analysis of the binding of pineal PRL-like ir-material and pituitary ovine PRL-S14 to liver membranes from day-20 pregnant rats revealed similar affinity constants (Ka of 4.7 ± 0.2 × 109 M-1). In addition, the replication of Nb 2 Node rat lymphoma cells was stimulated by pineal PRL-like ir-material, an effect known to be specific for lactogenic hormones. The pineal PRL-like immunoreactivity appeared on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels as a single major band of Mr 24,000. The functional status of PRL-and GH-like ir-material in the ovine pineal remains to be determined, but evidence is presented that the overall protein synthesis rate of the rat pineal responded to circulating concentrations of PRL.  相似文献   

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Objectives Peripartal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, leads to severe consequences for newborns. Preventive measures require awareness of the maternal infection. Although HIV and syphilis testing in Madagascar could be theoretically carried out within the framework of the national pregnancy follow‐up scheme, the required test kits are rarely available at peripheral health centres. In this study, we screened blood samples of pregnant Madagascan women for HIV and syphilis seroprevalence to estimate the demand for systemic screening in pregnancy. Methods Retrospective anonymous serological analysis for HIV and syphilis was performed in plasma samples from 1232 pregnant women that were taken between May and July 2010 in Ambositra, Ifanadiana, Manakara, Mananjary, Moramanga and Tsiroanomandidy (Madagascar) during pregnancy follow‐up. Screening was based on Treponema pallidum haemagglutination tests for syphilis and rapid tests for HIV, with confirmation of positive screening results on line assays. Results Out of 1232 pregnant women, none were seropositive for HIV and 37 (3%) were seropositive for Treponema pallidum. Conclusions Our findings are in line with previous studies that describe considerable syphilis prevalence in the rural Madagascan population. The results suggest a need for screening to prevent peripartal Treponema pallidum transmission, while HIV is still rare. If they are known, Treponema pallidum infections can be easily, safely and inexpensively treated even in pregnancy to reduce the risk of transmission.  相似文献   

14.
PURPOSE: Individuals who are seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus are at high risk for opportunistic infection and anorectal disorders. Little prospective information is available regarding anorectal pathogens in these patients. METHODS: One hundred sixty-three HIV-seropositive patients presented to the colorectal clinic between 1989 and 1992. Forty-seven (29 percent) patients were thought to have an infectious process and were prospectively studied using a standardized multiculture protocol. RESULTS: Mean age was 33 (range, 19–59) years. All were male; high-risk behavior accounted for 87 percent of HIV transmissions. Presenting complaints included anorectal pain (79 percent), pus per anum (28 percent), and blood per anum (26 percent). Examination revealed perianal tenderness (60 percent), condyloma (38 percent), perianal ulcers (38 percent), and anal fissures (34 percent). Sixty-six sets of cultures were performed; 28 patients had one set, 15 had two sets, and 4 had three sets. Thirty-two of these 47 patients (68 percent) had positive cultures including herpes (50 percent), cytomegalovirus (25 percent),Neisseria gonorrhoeae (16 percent), chlamydia (16 percent), acidfast bacilli (2 percent), and others (9 percent). Six of 32 patients with positive cultures had more than one organism cultured. Sixteen (50 percent) patients with positive cultures were treated medically, 8 (25 percent) were treated surgically and 8 (25 percent) were treated with both modalities. Sixty-one procedures were performed on 17 patients for condylomata. Eighteen patients had 20 procedures for abscesses, 50 percent of whom had positive cultures for other than common bowel flora; all improved. Fourteen patients underwent 33 procedures for perianal fistulas.Mycobacterium fortuitum was cultured from one patient who required 13 procedures for abscesses and fistulas. Forty-five (96 percent) patients were followed for an average of 12.5 months ±2.9 SEM (range, 1–94 months). Symptoms were improved or resolved in 22 of 32 (69 percent) patients with positive cultures and in 11 of 13 (84 percent) with negative cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Specific pathogens may often be identified in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients with anorectal disorders if aggressively sought. Although patients without specific pathogens identified may be expected to improve with planned empiric treatment, positive identification allows more directed therapy.  相似文献   

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Aim

Genetic polymorphisms of the human angiotensinogen gene are frequent and may induce up to 30% increase of plasma angiotensinogen concentrations with a blood pressure increase of up to 5 mmHg. Their role for the pathogenesis of human arterial hypertension remains unclear. High plasma angiotensinogen levels could increase the sensitivity to other blood pressure stressors.

Methods

Male transgenic rats with a 9-fold increase of plasma angiotensinogen concentrations and male non-transgenic rats aged 10 weeks were treated or not with NG-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester for 3 weeks in their drinking water (n = 3/group). Systolic blood pressure and body weight were measured at baseline and at the end of the study when left ventricular weight and ventricular expression of angiotensin I-converting enzyme and procollagen Iα1 were determined (polymerase chain reaction).

Results

At baseline, transgenic rats had +18 mmHg higher bood pressure and –8% lower body weight compared to non-transgenic rats (P < 0.05) without significant changes for the vehicle groups throughout the study (P > 0.05). NG-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester increased blood pressure, left ventricular weight and left ventricular weight indexed for body weight by +41%, +17.6% and +18.6% (P < 0.05) in transgenic and +25%, +5.3% and +6.7% (P > 0.05) in non-transgenic rats compared to untreated animals, respectively. Cardiac gene expression showed no differences between groups (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

Increased plasma angiotensinogen levels may sensitize to additional blood pressure stressors. Our preliminary results point towards an independent role of angiotensinogen in the pathogenesis of human hypertension and associated end-organ damage.  相似文献   

18.
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Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a badly known pathology because its diagnosis is not based on the conventional methods of investigation. The orthostatic test allows to make the diagnosis easily. The objective of this study is to determine cardiovascular autonomic reflexes of 70 patients having POTS. The tests of exploration of the autonomic nervous system practised are: deep breathing, hand grip, mental stress and orthostatic test. The analysis of orthostatic test showed that the increase of the cardiac frequency, relative to the state of “β” peripheral sympathetic hyperactivity occurred before the 2nd minute in 80% of patients. The POTS was considered “florid” in 43% of patients and had complicated of a rough and severe fall of systolic blood pressure inferior to 70 mmHg in four patients, after the fifth minute of the test. The analysis of the different tests had shown vagale hyperactivity in 63% of patients on deep breathing, in 93% of patients on hand grip and in 100% on orthostatic test. The “α” central sympathetic activity was increased in 76% of the cases and “β” central sympathetic activity was high in 83% of cases. The “α” peripheral hyperactivity was observed in 63% of patients on hand grip, and in 44% on orthostatic test. The analysis of cardiovascular autonomic reflexes on patients affected by POTS allowing the determination of their autonomic profile, will contribute probably to a better understanding of this pathology and to a better orientation of its care.  相似文献   

20.
Abstract: In vitro preparations of rat pinealocytes are widely used for biochemical analyses of signal transduction processes. This paper deals with morphological and immunocytochemical features of such preparations. Special attention was paid to the problems of whether pinealocytes represent a heterogeneous cell population and how such heterogeneity may develop during ontogeny. The investigations were performed with cells which were obtained from the pineal organ of one-week-and two-month-old rats, attached to synthetic peptide-coated coverslips or tissue culture chamber slides, and maintained under in vitro conditions overnight. The attached cells were then fixed with paraformaldehyde. These preparations yielded monolayers of spherical cells of different sizes; most cells were isolated, but some of them were aggregated and formed small clusters. On the average, the cells from the one-week-old animals were smaller than the cells from the two-month-old animals. Immunocytochemical demonstration of S-antigen, a pinealocyte-specific marker, showed that the majority of the cells from two-month-old animals were intensely or moderately labelled. Pinealocytes from one-week-old animals were less S-antigen immunoreactive. Only very few cells (less than 1% displayed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactivity. Planimetric investigations of the cell size and semiquantitative densitometric investigations of the intensity of the S-antigen immunoreaction revealed that (i) pinealocytes kept in vitro form a heterogeneous cell population, and that (ii) this heterogeneity increases during postnatal development from one-week-old to two-month-old animals. Two groups of pinealocytes can be distinguished based on their developmental fate: pinealocytes of one group grow dramatically, but show only a moderate increase in S-antigen immunoreactivity, and pinealocytes of the other group retain their size, but display a distinct increment in S-antigen immunoreacti vitv.  相似文献   

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