首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
相似文献
 共查询到20条相似文献,搜索用时 712 毫秒
1.
Objective: To identify patterns of nonfatal and fatal penetrating trauma among children and adults in New Mexico using ED and medical examiner data.
Methods: The authors retrospectively sampled in 5-year intervals all victims of penetrating trauma who presented to either the state Level-1 trauma center or the state medical examiner from a 16-year period (1978–1993). Rates of nonfatal and fatal firearm and stabbing injury were compared for children and adults.
Results: Rates of nonfatal injury were similar (firearm, 34.3 per 100,000 person-years; stabbing, 35.1). However, rates of fatal injury were significantly different (firearm, 21.9; stabbing, 2.7; relative risk: 8.2; 95% confidence interval: 5.4, 12.5). From 1978 to 1993, nonfatal injury rates increased for children (p = 0.0043) and adults (p < 0.0001), while fatal penetrating injury remained constant. The increase in nonfatal injury in children resulted from increased firearm injury rates. In adults, both stabbing and firearm nonfatal injury rates increased.
Conclusions: Nonfatal injury data suggest that nonfatal violence has increased; fatal injury data suggest that violent death rates have remained constant. Injury patterns vary by age, mechanism of trauma, and data source. These results suggest that ED and medical examiner data differ and that both are needed to guide injury prevention programs.  相似文献   

2.
Ranganath C  Heller AS  Wilding EL 《NeuroImage》2007,35(4):1663-1673
Although substantial evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) implements processes that are critical for accurate episodic memory judgments, the specific roles of different PFC subregions remain unclear. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to distinguish between prefrontal activity related to operations that (1) influence processing of retrieval cues based on current task demands, or (2) are involved in monitoring the outputs of retrieval. Fourteen participants studied auditory words spoken by a male or female speaker and completed memory tests in which the stimuli were unstudied foil words and studied words spoken by either the same speaker at study, or the alternate speaker. On "general" test trials, participants were to determine whether each word was studied, regardless of the voice of the speaker, whereas on "specific" test trials, participants were to additionally distinguish between studied words that were spoken in the same voice or a different voice at study. Thus, on specific test trials, participants were explicitly required to attend to voice information in order to evaluate each test item. Anterior (right BA 10), dorsolateral prefrontal (right BA 46), and inferior frontal (bilateral BA 47/12) regions were more active during specific than during general trials. Activation in anterior and dorsolateral PFC was enhanced during specific test trials even in response to unstudied items, suggesting that activation in these regions was related to the differential processing of retrieval cues in the two tasks. In contrast, differences between specific and general test trials in inferior frontal regions (bilateral BA 47/12) were seen only for studied items, suggesting a role for these regions in post-retrieval monitoring processes. Results from this study are consistent with the idea that different PFC subregions implement distinct, but complementary processes that collectively support accurate episodic memory judgments.  相似文献   

3.
4.
ABSTRACT

The Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews is published quarterly as a DVD and monthly online. The January 2011 issue (first quarterly DVD for 2011) contains 4515 complete reviews, 1985 protocols for reviews in production, and 13,521 one-page summaries of systematic reviews published in the general medical literature. In addition, there are citations of 641,000 randomized controlled trials, and 14,018 cited papers in the Cochrane methodology register. The health technology assessment database contains over 9300 citations. One hundred and seven new reviews have been published in the last 3 months, of which five have potential relevance for practitioners in pain and palliative medicine.  相似文献   

5.
6.
Delineating the Concept of Hope   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
  相似文献   

7.
Three supplementary perspectives are presented arguing that interprofessional collaboration is both necessary and desirable. Nonetheless, there are often too many serious intra-professional barriers and obstacles to interprofessional collaboration to make it successful. Some of these barriers, it is argued and illustrated, are found in the multiple ways in which professional identity is tacitly acquired and embodied in the practitioners' habitual, everyday practice. The paper then explores ways in which reflection, especially Second order reflection, can help to elucidate and overcome these obstacles, as well as increasing professional adaptability and competence.  相似文献   

8.
Because of the extensile nature and familiarity of the standard posterior-lateral approach to the hip, a family of "micro-posterior" approaches has been developed. This family includes the Percutaneously-Assisted Total Hip (PATH) approach, the Supercapsular (SuperCap) approach and a newer hybrid approach, the Supercapsular Percutaneously-Assisted Total Hip (SuperPATH) approach. Such approaches should ideally provide a continuum for the surgeon: from a "micro" (external rotator sparing) posterior approach, to a "mini" (external rotator sacrificing) posterior approach, to a standard posterior approach. This could keep a surgeon within his comfort zone during the learning curve of the procedure, while leaving options for complicated reconstructions for the more practiced micro-posterior surgeons. This paper details one author's experiences utilizing this combined approach, as well as permutations of this entire micro-posterior family of approaches as applied to more complex hip reconstructions.  相似文献   

9.
This is a new method for the determination of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB activity in serum. The method uses direct activity measurement of creatine kinase B subunit activity after blocking of CK-M subunit activity by inhibiting antibodies. The test takes no longer than 15 min. The method yields an intra-serial C.V. of 2.0-12.9%, and a C.V. from day to day of 5.5%. The detection limit is 3.4 U/l creatine kinase MB. In the 95 cases with proven myocardial infarction several types of creatine kinase MB activity kinetics could be determined. The percentage of creatine kinase MB of peak CK-total is 6-25%, with a mean of 11.1%. The amount of creatine kinase MB with respect to total CK activity after reinfarction is higher than the amount after initial infarction.  相似文献   

10.
Ankle sprains are the most common injury of the musculoskeletal system and are associated with significant societal and economic impacts. It has been proven that classical therapeutic strategies may not be effective in preventing recurrent injuries: the recurrence rates reported in the literature can reach 73%. In order to provide an effective rehabilitation solution, a destabilizing orthosis was developed. This device is equipped with a mechanical articulator reproducing the subtalar mechanics and placed under the heel. In this paper, we present the main results of a preliminary clinical study conducted between 2004 and 2007. All subjects included in this study were treated with the abovementioned orthosis during 10 rehabilitation sessions of 30 minutes each. Data show a relatively low recurrence rate of 12% for the overall population. Moreover, it's of primary importance to note that this satisfactory ratio is largely reduced (3% of recurrence rate) for the 29 patients who performed one training session per month after the 10th initial rehabilitation sessions. Hence, the destabilizing orthosis appears to be an effective solution to prevent recurrent ankle sprains. However, joint protection requires long-term and regular training sessions. This result has motivated the development of a similar device allowing patients to perform training sessions at home. Finally, data obtained in this study are promising awaiting the final results of the comparative, multicentric and independent clinical trials currently managed by the Hospices Civils de Lyon.  相似文献   

11.
Structure and function of "metalloantibiotics"   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Although most antibiotics do not need metal ions for their biological activities, there are a number of antibiotics that require metal ions to function properly, such as bleomycin (BLM), streptonigrin (SN), and bacitracin. The coordinated metal ions in these antibiotics play an important role in maintaining proper structure and/or function of these antibiotics. Removal of the metal ions from these antibiotics can cause changes in structure and/or function of these antibiotics. Similar to the case of "metalloproteins," these antibiotics are dubbed "metalloantibiotics" which are the title subjects of this review. Metalloantibiotics can interact with several different kinds of biomolecules, including DNA, RNA, proteins, receptors, and lipids, rendering their unique and specific bioactivities. In addition to the microbial-originated metalloantibiotics, many metalloantibiotic derivatives and metal complexes of synthetic ligands also show antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-neoplastic activities which are also briefly discussed to provide a broad sense of the term "metalloantibiotics."  相似文献   

12.
The drug susceptibility of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) varies among isolates. Treatment strategies similarly differ depending on the isolate, and for some, no clear strategy has been identified. This complicates clinical management of RGM. Following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standard M24-A2, we assessed the susceptibility of 140 RGM isolates to 14 different antimicrobial drugs by measuring their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). We also investigated the correlation of clarithromycin (CAM) MICs with the erm(41) and rrl gene mutations in the Mycobacteroides (Mycobacterium) abscessus complex, the rrl mutation in Mycobacteroides (Mycobacterium) chelonae, and the erm(39) mutation in Mycolicibacterium (Mycobacterium) fortuitum to determine the contribution of these mutations to CAM susceptibility. The five species and subspecies examined included 48 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates (34.3%), 35 (25.0%) being M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, and two (1.4%) being M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. The M. abscessus complex accounted for 85 isolates (60.7%) in total, whereas 43 isolates (30.7%) were M. fortuitum, and 12 (8.6%) were M. chelonae. Our results demonstrated species-specific susceptibility to antimicrobials. In most cases, susceptibility to CAM could be predicted based on genetic pattern, but since one isolate did not fit that pattern, MIC values needed to be measured. Some isolates also exhibited rates of resistance to other drugs that differed from those previously reported in other locations, indicating that accurate identification of the bacterial isolate and use of the correct method for determining MIC are both important for the diagnosis of RGM.  相似文献   

13.
目的 探讨俯卧位通气对高海拔地区肺复张术(RM)治疗无效急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)患者的治疗作用.方法 从海拔2260m的地区医院筛选RM治疗无效的41例ARDS患者[平均氧合指数( PaO2/FiO2)较RM前升高<20%视为RM无效],依不同病因分为肺内源性ARDS组(ARDSp组)和肺外源性ARDS组(ARDSexp组),每组再按信封法随机分为俯卧位组和仰卧位组,即ARDSp俯卧位组(11例)、ARDSp仰卧位组(9例)、ARDSexp俯卧位组(10例)、ARDSexp仰卧位组(11例).在通气前及通气1、2、3、4h监测动脉血氧分压( PaO2)、PaO2/FiO2、静态顺应性(Cst)、气道阻力(Raw)的变化.结果 通气lh时,ARDSexp俯卧位组PaO2/FiO2( mm Hg,l mm Hg=0.133 kPa)即较通气前显著升高(157.4±40.6比129.3±48.7,P<0.05),并随通气时间延长呈持续增高趋势,4h达峰值(219.1 ±41.1);且ARDSexp俯卧位组通气3h内PaO2/FiO2较其他3组显著增高,另3组间则差异无统计学意义.ARDSp俯卧位组、ARDSexp俯卧位组通气4h时PaO2/FiO2均较相应仰卧位组显著增高(208.8±39.7比127.4±47.1,219.1±41.1比124.9±50.8,均P<0.05).4组通气前后Cst无显著改变,各组间差异也无统计学意义.ARDSp俯卧位组通气4h时Raw(cmH2O·L-1·s-1)较通气前显著降低(6.8±1.7比10.7±1.8,P<0.05),且明显低于其他3组;其他3组各时间点Raw组内及组间比较差异均无统计学意义.结论 俯卧位通气作为ARDS机械通气重要策略之一,可以改善RM无效高原ARDS患者的氧合,为抢救患者赢得宝贵的时间.  相似文献   

14.
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in the USA operates a network of 172 medical centres which all utilize a hospital information system (HIS) which has been developed and is currently maintained by the VA. During the past several years, an image management and communication module has been developed, installed and clinically utilized at the Washington DC and Maryland VA Medical Centres. This image management and communication system, referred to as the decentralized hospital computer program (DHCP) imaging system, is fully integrated with a commercial picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The system is utilized to capture, archive, and display all images generated within the hospital including radiology, nuclear medicine, pathology, endoscopy, bronchoscopy, and dermatology, intraoperative photographs, ECG data, and a limited number of paper documents. The ultimate goal of the project is to have all patient text and image data available at any clinical workstation to any authorized user anywhere within the network of medical centres. Clinical requirements for an imaging workstation include ease of use, rapid and reliable access to the complete set of patient information, and images which are of acceptable quality to meet the requirements of the user and the subspecialty. Patient confidentiality and data security must be safeguarded at all times. Integration of the images with the remainder of the patient's database was found to be critical to the success of the project. The experience at the Washington and Maryland facilities suggests that an imaging system that is successfully integrated with a hospital information system can provide substantial clinical and economic benefits both within and among medical centres. Clinical acceptance and utilization of the system has been excellent, particularly in diagnostic radiology where DHCP Imaging has been interfaced to a commercial PAC system. Based upon this initial experience, the VA has begun to deploy the system throughout its large network of medical centres.  相似文献   

15.
16.
Myocardial elastography is a novel method for noninvasively assessing regional myocardial function, with the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, in-vivo experiments were performed in anesthetized normal and infarcted mice (one day after left anterior descending coronary artery [LAD] ligation) using a high-resolution (30 MHz) ultrasound system (Vevo 770, VisualSonics Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada). Radiofrequency (RF) signals of the left ventricle (LV) in longitudinal (long-axis) view and the associated electrocardiogram (ECG) were simultaneously acquired. Using a retrospective ECG gating technique, 2-D full field-of-view RF frames were acquired at an extremely high frame rate (8 kHz) that resulted in high-quality incremental displacement and strain estimation of the myocardium. The incremental results were further accumulated to obtain the cumulative displacements and strains. Two-dimensional and M-mode displacement images and strain images (elastograms), as well as displacement and strain profiles as a function of time, were compared between normal and infarcted mice. Incremental results clearly depicted cardiac events including LV contraction, LV relaxation and isovolumetric phases in both normal and infarcted mice, and also evidently indicated reduced motion and deformation in the infarcted myocardium. The elastograms indicated that the infarcted regions underwent thinning during systole rather than thickening, as in the normal case. The cumulative elastograms were found to have higher elastographic SNR (SNR(e)) than the incremental elastograms (e.g., 10.6 vs. 4.7 in a normal myocardium, and 6.0 vs. 2.4 in an infarcted myocardium). Finally, preliminary statistical results from nine normal (m = 9) and seven infarcted (n = 7) mice indicated the capability of the cumulative strain in differentiating infracted from normal myocardia. In conclusion, myocardial elastography could provide regional strain information at simultaneously high temporal (>/=0.125 ms) and spatial ( approximately 55 microm) resolution as well as high precision ( approximately 0.05 microm displacement). This technique was thus capable of accurately characterizing normal myocardial function throughout an entire cardiac cycle, at the same high resolution, and detecting and localizing myocardial infarction in vivo.  相似文献   

17.
The current healthcare quality improvement infrastructure is a product of a century long experience of cumulative efforts. It began with an acknowledgement of the role of quality in healthcare, and gradually evolved to encompass the prioritization of quality improvement and the development of systems to monitor, quantify, and incentivize quality improvement in healthcare. We review the origins and the evolution of the US healthcare quality movement, identify existing initiatives specific to musculoskeletal care, outline significant challenges and opportunities, and propose recommendations for the future. Elements noted to be associated with successful healthcare quality improvement efforts include the presence of physician leadership, infrastructural support, and prioritization of healthcare quality within the culture of the organization. Issues that will require continued work include the development of a valid and reliable evidence base, accurate and replicable performance measurement and data collection methods, and development of a standard set of specialty specific performance metrics, with accurate provider attribution, risk adjustment and reporting mechanisms.  相似文献   

18.
19.
目的 测定绝经后妇女血清基质金属蛋白酶-13 (MMP-13)和组织金属蛋白酶抑制因子1(TIMP-1)浓度,并探讨其与骨密度数值和骨代谢指标的关系.方法 选取武汉地区120名48 ~ 65岁绝经后女性,用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)测定血清MMP-13、TIMP-1以及雌二醇(E2)、骨保护蛋白(OPG)、骨保护蛋白配体(OPGL),Ⅰ型原胶原N端前肽(PINP)和Ⅰ型胶原交联C末端肽(CTX)的浓度,计算MMP-13/TIMP-1比值,用双能X线吸收法(DEXA)测定腰椎正位、股骨颈、华氏区和大粗隆的骨密度(BMD).同时,按照WHO标准将入选女性分为骨密度正常组(n=28)、低骨量组(n=36)和骨质疏松组(n=56).结果 骨密度正常组、低骨量组和骨质疏松组MMP-13浓度比较差异有统计学意义[(27.08±1.41) μg/L、(45.64±1.62)μg/L及(44.25±1.21) μg/L;F=110.314,P=0.000],且低骨量组、骨质疏松组血清MMP-13均高于正常组(P均<0.05),低骨量组MMP-13略高于骨质疏松组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);而TIMP-1在3组间差异无统计学意义(F=10.721,P=0.801).MMP-13/IIMP-1比值分别为0.185±0.062,0.311±0.053,0.332±0.063,3组差异有统计学意义(F=137.771,P =0.000),且低骨量组与骨质疏松组均高于骨密度正常组(P均<0.05),但两组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).骨质疏松组中血清MMP-13与骨密度(腰椎正位、股骨颈、华氏区)、血清E2、OPGL数值存在明显负相关性(r值分别为-0.296、-0.198、-0.301、-0.298、-0.233,P均<0.05),和OPG、PINP和CTX存在明显正相关性(r值分别为0.228、0.315、0.312,P均<0.05).低骨量组MMP-13与骨密度(腰椎正位、华氏区)和E2、CTX存在明显相关性(r值分别为-0.188、-0.196、-0.235、0.289,P均<0.05).结论 血清MMP-13和MMP-13/TIMP-1比值与绝经后骨质疏松症妇女和绝经后低骨量组妇女骨代谢指标具有关联性.血清MMP-13浓度升高和MMP-13/TIMP-1比值升高可能为绝经后骨质疏松症和绝经后妇女早期骨代谢转换过程增快的表现.  相似文献   

20.
Control of malaria in pregnancy through prevention or treatment may save lives of mothers and babies. Selection of drugs for treatment of infected pregnant women, or for prevention in exposed populations is problematic owing to resistance to established drugs and lack of pregnancy-specific safety and pharmacological data for new drugs. Encouragingly, a number of new drugs and combinations of drugs hold promise for effective treatment, but adequate data on their safety in pregnancy is currently lacking. Our principal challenges are to decide which drugs to develop for use in malaria treatment and prevention in pregnancy and to develop mechanisms to rapidly and comprehensively evaluate their safety. Prevention of pregnancy malaria by vaccination may also become possible, but targets must be closely defined, and strategies developed to test candidates against meaningful end points.  相似文献   

设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号