首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   12篇
  眼科学   12篇
  2009年   1篇
  2008年   2篇
  2006年   1篇
  2003年   2篇
  2001年   3篇
  2000年   2篇
  1999年   1篇
排序方式: 共有12条查询结果,搜索用时 46 毫秒
1.
北京市顺义县50岁及以上人群中盲患病率调查   总被引:79,自引:13,他引:66  
目的 调查北京市顺义县50岁及以上人群盲患病率,并与1985年调查结果相比较,以此评价近10余年该县实施防盲治项目的效果。方法 1996年9~11月采用整群随机抽样方法在顺义县抽取28个调查点,对50岁及以上人群进行视力和眼部检查。正式现场调查之前先进行预试验,并进行保证调查质量的重复性检验。结果 检录5555例中,受检人数为5084例,受检率为91.5%。以世界卫生组织视力损伤为标准,盲患病率为  相似文献
2.
北京市顺义区白内障患病和手术状况的调查   总被引:48,自引:4,他引:44  
目的 调查北京市顺义区50岁及以上人群中白内障患病率、白内障盲人手术覆盖率和白内障盲人社会负担率,以此了解白内障的患病状况及评价10余年来该区实施以白内障手术治疗为主的防盲治盲工作的效果。方法 1996年9月,采用整群随机抽样方法对顺义区抽取28个调查点5084例50岁及以上人群进行视力和眼部检查,包括应用裂隙灯检查受检者晶状体;了解接受白内障手术的情况。结果 5084例受检者中,白内障患病率为23.31%。随着年龄的增加,白内障患病率明显增高。在女性和文盲者中的白内障患病率较高,分别为26.01%及37.33%;1984年后,白内障手术率持续增加,以双眼小孔视力<0.05作为盲的标准,白内障手术覆盖率为56.36%,白内障盲人的社会负担率为1.63%。以双眼日常生活视力<0.1为标准,白内障手术的覆盖率为47.79%,白内障盲人的社会负担率为2.22%。在70岁以上人群、女性和文盲者中,白内障手术覆盖率较低,分别为36.36%、44.87%及44.09%。白内障盲人的社会负担率较高,分别为6.84%、2.74%及3.90%。结论白内障仍是高龄者的致盲眼病,白内障盲人所造成的社会负担较重。在老龄、女性及文盲中因白内障引起的盲目仍是顺义区目前存在的严重问题。  相似文献
3.
视觉矫正质量评价研究   总被引:18,自引:1,他引:17  
Qu J  Lü F  Mao XJ  Mao CR 《中华眼科杂志》2003,39(6):325-327
目的 探讨视敏度和对比敏感度函数与视网膜光学成像质量的关系 ,评价各种屈光矫正方法获得的视觉质量。方法  2 3例近视眼患者 (4 1只眼 )近视度数范围为 - 1 2 5D~ - 9 2 5D ,散光度数 <0 5 0D ,每例患者用 3种方式全矫 :(1)同一品牌树脂镜片的框架眼镜 (spectacles,SP) ;(2 )同一品牌的软性角膜接触镜 (softcontactlens,SCL) ;(3)同一材料和设计硬性角膜接触镜 (rigidgas permeablelens ,RGP)。分别在全矫状态下进行远距和近距的LogMAR视敏度检测和对比敏感度函数检测。为了避免主观误差 ,3种矫正方式的先后顺序随机决定 ,所用的视力表和对比敏感度函数视力表为同一设计类型 ,但视标方向不同。结果 远距视力RGP矫正的视敏度明显好于SCL (P <0 0 0 1)和SP(P <0 0 5 ) ,SCL和SP矫正视力差异无显著意义 (P >0 0 5 )。在低频率点 (1 5及 3 0cpd) ,3种方式的对比敏感度函数差异无显著意义 ,在高频率点 (6 0、12 0及 18 0cpd)RGP对比敏感度函数曲线明显高于SCL和SP。结论 视力对比敏感度函数可以较好的表达矫正的视网膜光学成像质量 ;RGP相对于SCL及SP而言 ,可提供较好的视觉质量。  相似文献
4.
超高度轴性近视白内障患者的视力预后及其影响因素   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
目的 前瞻性研究超高度轴性近视白内障患者的视力预后及其影响因素 ,为人工晶状体 (IOL)屈光度数的选择提供依据。方法 选择 2 4例 (43只眼 )超高度轴性近视 (屈光度数>- 10 0 0D ,眼轴长度 >2 7 0 0mm)合并轻、中度白内障患者 ,详细检查超声乳化白内障吸除人工晶状体植入术前、后的远视力 (VA)、最佳矫正视力 (BCVA)、近视力 (NVA)、眼轴长度及眼底病变程度 ,并进行统计学比较和多元逐步回归分析。结果  (1)术后 1个月VA、BCVA、NVA均较术前明显提高(P <0 0 1) ;(2 )术前NVA和眼底病变程度明显影响术后视力 (P <0 0 1) ;(3)术前NVA≥ 0 1和眼轴长度 <2 9 0 0mm的患者术后视力分别好于术前NVA≤ 0 0 8和眼轴长度≥ 2 9 0 0mm的患者 (P <0 0 1) ;(4)术后NVA≤ 0 2 5的术眼主观感觉近距离视物能力下降。结论 术前NVA是视力预后的重要影响因素和预测指标 ;手术医师应根据术前NVA和患者对近距离工作的要求 ,慎重选择IOL的屈光度数。  相似文献
5.
短眼轴性白内障超声乳化吸除术   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
目的 分析短眼轴性白内障超声乳化吸除术的难点,并探讨其预防措施。方法 对行超声乳化白内障吸除手术、眼轴长度为20.21~22.10mm的白内障患者122例(143只眼)进行回顾性分析。结果 术后1个月矫正视力1.0~1.2者占16.8%,0.5~0.8者占67.1%;术中晶状体后囊膜破裂发生率为7.7%;术后炎性反应明显,角膜可逆性水肿发生率为29.4%,明显高于长眼轴白内障患者(6.7%),高于正常眼轴硬核性白内障患者(12.5%)。结论 短眼轴性白内障患者前房浅、眼前段组织空间狭小、玻璃体压力高,手术难度大;强调切口规范,应用手法碎核技术和低能量、高吸引力超声乳化技术,提高超声乳化操作的有效性,使用高质量黏弹剂,保持前房深度,均是顺利完成手术的关键。  相似文献
6.
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of several common general anesthetics on intraocular pressure (IOP) after experimental aqueous outflow obstruction in the rat. METHODS: A single episcleral vein injection of hypertonic saline was used to sclerose aqueous humor outflow pathways and produce elevated IOP in Brown Norway rats. Animals were housed in either standard lighting or a constant low-level light environment. Awake IOPs were determined using a TonoPen (Mentor, Norwell, MA) immediately before induction of anesthesia by either isoflurane, ketamine, or a mixture of injectable anesthetics (xylazine, ketamine, and acepromazine). For each anesthetic, IOPs were measured immediately after adequate sedation (time 0) and at 5-minute intervals, up to 20 minutes. RESULTS; Awake IOPs ranged from 18 to 52 mm Hg. All anesthetics resulted in a statistically significant (P: < 0.01) reduction in measured IOP at every duration of anesthesia when compared with the corresponding awake IOP. With increasing duration of anesthesia, measured IOP decreased approximately linearly for both the anesthetic mixture and isoflurane. However, with ketamine, IOP declined to 48% +/- 11% (standard lighting) and 60% +/- 7% (constant light) of awake levels at 5 minutes of anesthesia, where it remained stable. In fellow eyes, the SD of the mean IOP in animals under anesthesia was always greater than the corresponding SD of the awake mean. Anesthesia's effects in normal eyes and eyes with elevated IOP were indistinguishable. CONCLUSIONS: All anesthetics resulted in rapid and substantial decreases in IOP in all eyes and increased the interanimal variability in IOPs. Measurement of IOP in awake animals provides the most accurate documentation of pressure histories for rat glaucoma model studies.  相似文献
7.
PURPOSE: To determine the diural intraocular pressure (IOP) response of Brown Norway rat eyes after sclerosis of the aqueous humor outflow pathways and its relationship to optic nerve damage. METHODS: Hypertonic saline was injected into a single episcleral vein in 17 animals and awake IOP measured in both the light and dark phases of the circadian cycle for 34 days. Mean IOP for light and dark phases during the experimental period were compared with the respective pressures of the uninjected fellow eyes. Optic nerve cross sections from each nerve were graded for injury by five independent masked observers. RESULTS: For fellow eyes, mean light- and dark-phase IOP was 21 +/- 1 and 31 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively. For four experimental eyes, mean IOPs for both phases were not altered. Six eyes demonstrated significant mean IOP elevations only during the dark phase. Of these, five showed persistent, large circadian oscillations, and four had partial optic nerve lesions. The remaining seven eyes experienced significant IOP elevations during both phases, and all had extensive optic nerve damage. CONCLUSIONS: Episcleral vein injection of hypertonic saline is more likely to increase IOP during the dark phase than the light. This is consistent with aqueous outflow obstruction superimposed on a circadian rhythm of aqueous humor production. Because these periodic IOP elevations produced optic nerve lesions, both light- and dark-phase IOP determinations are necessary for accurate correlation of IOP history to optic nerve damage in animals housed in a light- dark environment.  相似文献
8.
将图像傅里叶频谱分析应用于汉字视标的选择   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
目的 以汉字图像各空间频率的频谱能量相似为原则,筛选汉字作为汉字视力表的备选视标.方法 从2500个常用汉字中选取两类笔画数的汉字:少笔画数汉字(2、3、4画,共172个)和中笔画数汉字(7、8.9画,共890个).将其中的每个汉字制作成BMP图片格式.然后,利用傅里叶频谱分析,获取每个汉字图像各空间频率成分的频谱分布.以此分别对所有的少笔画数和中笔画数汉字的各空间频率的频谱能量求均值,将其作为参照值,采用聚类分析将汉字图像进行聚类来选取汉字.结果 与少笔画数和中笔画数汉字各空间频率的频谱能量均值相似的汉字分别为50和40个.结论 通过汉字图像的傅里叶频谱分析,以汉字图像的各空间频率的频谱能量相似作为筛选视标的主要原则,符合了视觉系统具有的傅里叶频谱分析特性.此方法应用于汉字视标的筛选具有重要的意义.  相似文献
9.
PURPOSE: The measurement of outcomes of pediatric therapy will be increasingly important to third-party payers as they allocate health care resources. We undertook this study to assess the effectiveness of treatment of acquired esotropia, as measured subjectively by parents and objectively by examination. METHODS: A chart review was used to gather objective clinical data from all patients presenting between 1994 and 1995 with esotropia after their first birthday. Parents' impressions of the quality and impact of treatment were tabulated by using a telephone questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 48 patients studied (mean age, 3.8 years; 44 months' follow-up), the 26 with amblyopia were effectively treated in 81% of cases. Mean esotropic angles decreased, with glasses and/or surgery, from 33.1 to 4.9 PD at distance and from 40.0 to 11.4 PD at near. The average estimated cost of care was 547 dollars per patient per year. Parents considered treatment "extremely important" to their child's future happiness and success in 90% of cases. CONCLUSION: Our experience has shown that treatment of acquired esotropia in childhood, while relatively inexpensive, is highly effective, both objectively and subjectively.  相似文献
10.
有效提高眼内屈光手术视觉质量是该类手术临床应用的前提。视觉质量是一个综合因素,与手术安全性、人工晶状体材料与度数计算、眼球相关参数测量和心理物理感知等有关。本文就此类手术的视觉质量及其相关因素分析进行述评。  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号