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1.
Posterior capsule opacification.   总被引:68,自引:0,他引:68  
A complication of extracapsular cataract extraction with or without posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation is posterior capsule opacification. This condition is usually secondary to a proliferation and migration of residual lens epithelial cells. Opacification may be reduced by atraumatic surgery and thorough cortical clean-up. Clinical, pathological and experimental studies have shown that use of hydrodissection, the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and specific IOL designs may help reduce the incidence of this complication. Capsular-fixated, one-piece all-polymethylmethacrylate PC-IOLs with a C-shaped loop configuration and a posterior convexity of the optic are effective. Polymethylmethacrylate loops that retain "memory" create a symmetric, radial stretch on the posterior capsule after in-the-bag placement, leading to a more complete contact between the posterior surface of the IOL optic and the taut capsule. This may help form a barrier against central migration of epithelial cells into the visual axis. Various pharmacological and immunological methods are being investigated but conclusive data on these modalities are not yet available.  相似文献
2.
The stretching capability of the zonules was studied in 40 human eyes obtained postmortem from 27 patients. A continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) (2.2-6.8 mm) was performed, and the lenses were removed by either phacoemulsification (26 eyes) or planned extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) (14 eyes). Maximal zonular stretch was calculated as the difference in distance between the ciliary processes and the zonular insertion at rest and after maximal stretch. This zonular stretch test showed that zonules can stretch to a mean distance of 3.82 mm before rupturing. Capsular elasticity was measured in 35 of the eyes by gradually opening a modified caliper until the capsular opening was torn. The ratio between the circumference at rupture and the circumference at rest was used as an index of capsular elasticity. Circumference of the intact capsulorhexis could be enlarged an additional 62% before a radial tear occurred. In most cases, no significant correlation was seen between the capsular and zonular capability to stretch. Maximal zonular stretch decreased significantly with age by approximately 0.5 mm for every 5 yr, whereas capsular elasticity did not show a significant correlation with age. Two eyes with pseudoexfoliation had relatively friable zonules but the capsular elasticity was within normal limits. Patient age is probably the best indicator of the stretching capability of the zonules.  相似文献
3.
Two hundred fifty consecutive postmortem eyes containing posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) were analyzed according to the presence and number of radial anterior capsular tears. Over 90% of cases had been done with the "can opener" technique. A surprisingly high percentage of cases, 86%, had one to five radial tears. Furthermore, our analysis showed that the most consistent and most permanent in-the-bag fixation was achieved when only one tear or less was present in the anterior capsule. Because this study shows that the incidence of radial tears is very high after nuclear expression with "can opener" capsulectomy, it provides a scientific basis supporting the transition toward the continuous circular capsulorhexis technique that is slowly evolving. The latter technique has been shown to minimize the incidence of anterior capsular radial tears. This may ultimately serve to decrease the incidence of PC IOL decentration, an important goal if the use of bimultifocal IOLs and IOLs with small or aspheric optics is to be successful.  相似文献
4.
Topical anesthesia using lidocaine gel for cataract surgery.   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
PURPOSE: To assess the safety and efficacy of topical anesthesia using lidocaine gel in cataract surgery. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Meir Hospital, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar-Saba, Israel. METHODS: One hundred cataract procedures (48 manual extracapsular cataract extraction [ECCE] and 52 phacoemulsification) were performed using lidocaine 2% gel as the sole anesthetic agent. The gel was applied 3 to 5 times prior to surgery. Intraoperative and postoperative data were recorded, and patients were asked to grade the pain on a scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (unbearable pain). RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of patients having manual ECCE and 74% having phacoemulsification reported no pain during surgery (score 0). The mean pain score in the manual ECCE group was 0.99 +/- 1.64 (SD); 3 patients required an additional intracameral lidocaine injection. The mean score in the phacoemulsification group was 0.72 +/- 1.47; no patient required additional anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Topical application using lidocaine 2% gel is safe and highly effective, especially in clear corneal phacoemulsification. The gel also provides prolonged lubrication, further facilitating surgery.  相似文献
5.
The posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis technique has been advocated in cases of posterior capsule rupture during extracapsular cataract extraction. The authors compared posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis with posterior capsular sharp-edged tears. Two different types of forces were experimentally created on the posterior capsule of 30 human eyes obtained after death: (1) implantation and dialing of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) and (2) increased intravitreal pressure by injection of balanced salt solution. All posterior capsular tears extended toward the equator, causing major capsular defects. In contrast, the posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis remained intact in all cases. This experimental study proves that in cases where an inadvertent posterior capsular tear occurs, a posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis is useful in preventing further capsular damage. Also, in cases where a posterior capsulotomy is indicated, a smooth edge created by a posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis may be useful to maintain the integrity of the capsular bag for PC IOL capsular implantation.  相似文献
6.
The cyclodestructive effects of cyclocryotherapy and of the neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) and diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation were investigated in phakic and pseudophakic cadaver eyes using a modified Miyake posterior-view technique and light microscopy. Cyclocryotherapy to -80 degrees C was applied with a 2.5-mm diameter tip, 1 and 2 mm from the limbus. Freezing at the ciliary processes was evident after 10-15 sec and reached a diameter of 3-4 mm by 30 sec. No visible changes were evident grossly in the ciliary processes, crystalline lens, or intraocular lens. Histologically increased separation of cells was observed. Effective noncontact Nd:YAG and diode laser applications to the ciliary processes were observed grossly as tissue blanching and shrinking and pigment dispersion. This effect was obtained by aiming 0.5-1.0 mm behind the limbus at a 1-mm defocus using 4 J of energy for the Nd:YAG and 1.2 J for the diode laser. The diode laser spot size did not affect the tissue response. No damage was observed in the crystalline or intraocular lens with either type of laser. Histologic changes using both lasers were coagulation necrosis with fragmentation and detachment of the ciliary body epithelium. This study suggested that the gross and histologic thermal effects produced by the diode and Nd:YAG laser were similar in the ciliary body. Also, at the time of surgery, these cyclodestructive procedures potentially cause little alteration of the crystalline or intraocular lens.  相似文献
7.
Corneal endothelial cytotoxicity of diluted povidone--iodine.   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
PURPOSE: To assess corneal endothelial toxicity of diluted povidone-iodine (PI) in vivo and in vitro. SETTING: Cell Biology Laboratory and the Laboratory for Intraocular Microsurgery and Implants, Goldschleger Eye Research Institute, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel. METHODS: In an in vitro study, cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells were exposed to diluted PI. The degree of cell damage was determined by staining with trypan blue and by comparing the results to those in a control group. In an in vivo study, a single dose of diluted PI was injected into the anterior chamber of rabbit eyes, completely replacing the aqueous humor. The eyes were evaluated by clinical examination, specular microscopy, pachymetry, pneumotonometry, and histopathology and compared to a control group injected with a balanced salt solution. RESULTS: In vitro, PI concentrations of 0.05% or less did not induce endothelial cell damage. Significant damage was observed with a PI concentration of 0.1%. Calf serum concentrations of 1% and higher in the culture media protected the endothelial cell monolayer from cytotoxic damage by PI. Aqueous humor did not have a similar effect. In vivo, PI concentrations of 0.1% or less did not induce changes in corneal endothelium morphology or function as assessed by specular microscopy and pachymetry. A PI concentration of 1% served as a positive control, causing corneal edema and endothelial cell loss as demonstrated by pachymetry, histopathology, and elevated intraocular pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The concentrations of PI tolerated by animal endothelium in vitro and in vivo were higher than the reported bactericidal levels. These findings justify further investigation of the safety and efficacy of PI for intracameral prophylaxis during surgery.  相似文献
8.
Background: Bacterial endophthalmitis is a rare vision-threatening disease, usually caused by microorganisms that are natural inhabitants of the eye lids and conjunctiva. This study was conducted to investigate the role of intraocular lenses (IOLs) in introducing bacterial contamination into the eye during cataract surgery and the efficacy of povidone-iodine solution in prevention this ocular inoculum. · Methods: Fifty patients underwent routine cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation. One group of the patients was pretreated with external disinfection using povidone-iodine 4% before surgery, while the other group was only pretreated with saline irrigation. Before IOL implantation, a test IOL was placed on the conjunctiva and taken for microbiological studies. Anterior chamber tap was done at the beginning and at the end of each operation. Positive bacterial growth was followed by bacterial identification and sensitivity tests to various antibiotics. · Results: Bacterial growth was obtained in 14 of the 50 eyes (28%); in 5 eyes the organism was cultured from tapped aqueous and in 9 eyes from the test IOLs. Prophylactic use of povidone-iodine 4% solution effectively reduced the contamination rate from 34.7% to 16.7%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common organisms isolated (72%). Most organisms were sensitive to vancomycin (86%) and to fucidic acid (71%). There were no cases of clinical endophthalmitis. · Conclusions: IOLs are apparently potential vehicles for introduction of intraocular bacterial contamination. Instillation of povidone-iodine 4% into the cul-de-sac reduces the risk of bacterial inoculum. Vancomycin is the most effective single agent against intraocular contamination. In order to reduce potential intraocular contamination it is advisable to avoid contact between the IOL and ocular tissues. Received: 23 June 1997 Revised version received: 9 October 1997 Accepted: 22 October 1997  相似文献
9.
We investigated the ability of the anterior lens capsule to stretch and allow removal of lens substance and intraocular lens implantation through a continuous circular capsulorhexis. Capsulorhexis of various sizes (2.5 to 7.5 mm) were performed in 50 eyes obtained post mortem from 31 patients. The nucleus and cortex were removed by either phacoemulsification (35 eyes) or manual extracapsular cataract extraction (15 eyes). The opening of the capsule was then gradually enlarged, using a modified caliper with two pins attached to its tips, until the margins were torn. The capsule was torn when the circumference at the time of rupture was 1.6 times larger than the circumference of the original circular capsulectomy or 5.0 times larger than the diameter of the capsulectomy. Manual extraction of a lens nucleus with profile circumference (sagittal or anteroposterior) of 18.0 to 22.0 mm can be performed through a 5.5-mm opening and a 6.0- to 7.0-mm optic intraocular lens (profile circumference of 13.0 to 17.0 mm) can be implanted through a 4.5-mm capsulectomy.  相似文献
10.
A survey of 1204 closed-loop anterior chamber intraocular lenses (AC-IOLs) and 310 open-loop AC-IOLs accessioned between November 1982 and January 1990 was conducted at the Center for Intraocular Lens Research. An analysis of complication rates was done after normalization of data with respect to market share totals. The results establish that an unacceptable complication rate is associated with the closed-loop design when compared with either the tripod or quadripod lens styles. Furthermore, the closed-loop designs, while comprising an estimated 45% of the total number of AC-IOLs estimated to be implanted in the United States (n = 674,000), were responsible for 80% of the AC-IOLs explanted after complications and accessioned at the authors' center. A rethinking of the extreme condemnation of all anterior chamber IOLs that has surfaced in recent years is warranted. This is particularly true with respect to indications for use of sutured posterior chamber (PC) IOLs as well as with regard to possible use of open-loop AC-IOLs in less-industrialized nations.  相似文献
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