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1.
Posterior capsule opacification.   总被引:68,自引:0,他引:68  
A complication of extracapsular cataract extraction with or without posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation is posterior capsule opacification. This condition is usually secondary to a proliferation and migration of residual lens epithelial cells. Opacification may be reduced by atraumatic surgery and thorough cortical clean-up. Clinical, pathological and experimental studies have shown that use of hydrodissection, the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and specific IOL designs may help reduce the incidence of this complication. Capsular-fixated, one-piece all-polymethylmethacrylate PC-IOLs with a C-shaped loop configuration and a posterior convexity of the optic are effective. Polymethylmethacrylate loops that retain "memory" create a symmetric, radial stretch on the posterior capsule after in-the-bag placement, leading to a more complete contact between the posterior surface of the IOL optic and the taut capsule. This may help form a barrier against central migration of epithelial cells into the visual axis. Various pharmacological and immunological methods are being investigated but conclusive data on these modalities are not yet available.  相似文献
2.
The stretching capability of the zonules was studied in 40 human eyes obtained postmortem from 27 patients. A continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) (2.2-6.8 mm) was performed, and the lenses were removed by either phacoemulsification (26 eyes) or planned extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) (14 eyes). Maximal zonular stretch was calculated as the difference in distance between the ciliary processes and the zonular insertion at rest and after maximal stretch. This zonular stretch test showed that zonules can stretch to a mean distance of 3.82 mm before rupturing. Capsular elasticity was measured in 35 of the eyes by gradually opening a modified caliper until the capsular opening was torn. The ratio between the circumference at rupture and the circumference at rest was used as an index of capsular elasticity. Circumference of the intact capsulorhexis could be enlarged an additional 62% before a radial tear occurred. In most cases, no significant correlation was seen between the capsular and zonular capability to stretch. Maximal zonular stretch decreased significantly with age by approximately 0.5 mm for every 5 yr, whereas capsular elasticity did not show a significant correlation with age. Two eyes with pseudoexfoliation had relatively friable zonules but the capsular elasticity was within normal limits. Patient age is probably the best indicator of the stretching capability of the zonules.  相似文献
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Two hundred fifty consecutive postmortem eyes containing posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) were analyzed according to the presence and number of radial anterior capsular tears. Over 90% of cases had been done with the "can opener" technique. A surprisingly high percentage of cases, 86%, had one to five radial tears. Furthermore, our analysis showed that the most consistent and most permanent in-the-bag fixation was achieved when only one tear or less was present in the anterior capsule. Because this study shows that the incidence of radial tears is very high after nuclear expression with "can opener" capsulectomy, it provides a scientific basis supporting the transition toward the continuous circular capsulorhexis technique that is slowly evolving. The latter technique has been shown to minimize the incidence of anterior capsular radial tears. This may ultimately serve to decrease the incidence of PC IOL decentration, an important goal if the use of bimultifocal IOLs and IOLs with small or aspheric optics is to be successful.  相似文献
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The posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis technique has been advocated in cases of posterior capsule rupture during extracapsular cataract extraction. The authors compared posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis with posterior capsular sharp-edged tears. Two different types of forces were experimentally created on the posterior capsule of 30 human eyes obtained after death: (1) implantation and dialing of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) and (2) increased intravitreal pressure by injection of balanced salt solution. All posterior capsular tears extended toward the equator, causing major capsular defects. In contrast, the posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis remained intact in all cases. This experimental study proves that in cases where an inadvertent posterior capsular tear occurs, a posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis is useful in preventing further capsular damage. Also, in cases where a posterior capsulotomy is indicated, a smooth edge created by a posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis may be useful to maintain the integrity of the capsular bag for PC IOL capsular implantation.  相似文献
7.
The cyclodestructive effects of cyclocryotherapy and of the neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) and diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation were investigated in phakic and pseudophakic cadaver eyes using a modified Miyake posterior-view technique and light microscopy. Cyclocryotherapy to -80 degrees C was applied with a 2.5-mm diameter tip, 1 and 2 mm from the limbus. Freezing at the ciliary processes was evident after 10-15 sec and reached a diameter of 3-4 mm by 30 sec. No visible changes were evident grossly in the ciliary processes, crystalline lens, or intraocular lens. Histologically increased separation of cells was observed. Effective noncontact Nd:YAG and diode laser applications to the ciliary processes were observed grossly as tissue blanching and shrinking and pigment dispersion. This effect was obtained by aiming 0.5-1.0 mm behind the limbus at a 1-mm defocus using 4 J of energy for the Nd:YAG and 1.2 J for the diode laser. The diode laser spot size did not affect the tissue response. No damage was observed in the crystalline or intraocular lens with either type of laser. Histologic changes using both lasers were coagulation necrosis with fragmentation and detachment of the ciliary body epithelium. This study suggested that the gross and histologic thermal effects produced by the diode and Nd:YAG laser were similar in the ciliary body. Also, at the time of surgery, these cyclodestructive procedures potentially cause little alteration of the crystalline or intraocular lens.  相似文献
8.
Two hundred twenty-two postmortem eyes containing posterior chamber intraocular lenses (IOLs) were analyzed for optic decentration in relationship to lens style, implant duration, and loop fixation site. Decentration values were not affected significantly by either lens style or implant duration. In 33.3% of specimens, both loops were situated within the lens capsular sac, 18.0% had both loops fixated in the ciliary sulcus, and in 48.7% one loop was fixated in the lens capsular sac and the opposite loop in the ciliary sulcus or zonular region. There was a statistically significant difference in the amount of decentration in the three fixation groups studied. Capsular fixation provides the best and most consistent centration compared with fixation of both loops in the ciliary sulcus or asymmetrical fixation with only one loop in the capsular sac.  相似文献
9.
Biopsy of human scleral-chorioretinal tissue.   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
The usefulness of a technique for scleral-chorioretinal biopsies was evaluated on a human eye destined for enucleation due to a malignant melanoma of the choroid. The operative procedure was without complication. The biopsy specimen was removed and carefully evaluated both by light and electron microscopy. The underlying choroid and retinal tissues were successfully preserved by this technique.  相似文献
10.
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