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The Centers for Disease Control conducted intensive surveillance for acute non-A, non-B hepatitis in four sentinel counties over a 7-year period. Testing for antibody to hepatitis C virus was performed with the newly developed enzyme immunoassay. The incidence of non-A, non-B hepatitis remained relatively stable (average, 7.1 cases per 100,000, but there were significant changes in disease transmission patterns. The proportion of patients with a history of blood transfusion declined from 17% to 6%, but the proportion with a history of parenteral drug use increased from 21% to 42%. The proportion of patients with histories of sexual exposure (6%), household exposure (3%), occupational exposure to blood (2%), or hemodialysis (0.6%) did not change over time. Antibody to hepatitis C virus was found in 45% of patients within 6 weeks of onset of illness and in 68% of patients followed up for at least 6 months. Patients with no history of transfusions were just as likely to be positive for antibody to hepatitis C virus as patients with transfusion-associated hepatitis, indicating that hepatitis C virus is the major causative agent of all non-A, non-B hepatitis in the United States.  相似文献
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不同基因型戊型肝炎病毒重组蛋白的抗原性分析   总被引:27,自引:1,他引:26  
目的:探讨不同基因型和亚型戊型戊型肝炎病毒(HEV)重组蛋白氨基酸序列的变化对HEV抗原性的影响。筛选出最佳的HEV抗原用于戊型肝炎的免疫诊断。方法:用已知序列的HEV基因工程表达蛋白作为包被抗原,对已知血清标本进行酶联免疫吸附试验测定。结果:6种不同抗原对30份正常献血者血清无抗原性,对17份急性戊型肝炎病人血清和5份实验感染动物血清均呈阳性反应,但血清抗体滴度的高低与所有抗原的基础型有关,尤其是受到该抗原第76位氨基酸变化的影响。结论:多基因型HEV抗原混合物是HEV免疫诊断的最佳抗原。  相似文献
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Lethal outbreak of hepatitis B in a dental practice   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Between April 1, 1984, and Feb 1, 1985, nine cases of hepatitis B occurred in the patients of a dentist practicing in a rural Indiana county (population, 35,000). This was over 20 times the mean annual incidence for the county in the previous decade. All of the patients had been treated by the dentist two to five months before illness. Although the dentist had never had hepatitis symptoms, his serum was positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen and negative for anti-hepatitis B core IgM antibody, indicating that he was probably a hepatitis B carrier. Two patients (22%) died of fulminant hepatitis; the case-fatality ratio was over ten times the reported US mean for hepatitis B. Using a case definition based on anti-hepatitis B core IgM antibody positivity and exposure to the dentist during a defined time period, a serosurvey of the dentist's patients identified 15 asymptomatic cases (overall attack rate, 3.2%). Infection risk was related to the amount of trauma involved in the cases' dental procedures. No cause was found for the unusual lethality of the outbreak.  相似文献
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A randomized, double-blind clinical trial of plasma-derived and DNA recombinant hepatitis B virus vaccines was conducted in 186 homosexual men. Nine months after the immunization series (three doses) began, the seroconversion rate in the plasma vaccine group was 88% (68/77); this was significantly higher than the 74% (60/81) response rate of the recombinant vaccine group. Men positive for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) had a considerably higher nonresponse rate to either vaccine than expected in non-HIV-infected homosexual men. The odds ratios of nonresponse to hepatitis B virus vaccine for HIV-seropositive vs HIV-seronegative subjects were 12.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 89.3) and 13.6 (95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 148.3) for the plasma and DNA recombinant vaccines, respectively.  相似文献
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