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BACKGROUND: Recent observations have indicated that reproductive endocrine disorders are common among women taking valproate (VPA) for epilepsy, but it is not known whether respective abnormalities develop in men taking VPA for epilepsy. Carbamazepine (CBZ) may induce endocrine disorders in men with epilepsy, but the endocrine effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC) are not known. METHODS: Reproductive endocrine function was evaluated in 90 men taking VPA (n = 21), CBZ (n = 40), or OXC (n = 29) as monotherapy for epilepsy and in 25 healthy control men. RESULTS: Twelve men (57%) taking VPA had increased serum androgen levels. The mean serum level of androstenedione was high in patients taking VPA. Serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were low, and serum concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were high in men taking CBZ. The endocrine effects of OXC seemed to be dose-dependent, because serum hormone levels were normal in patients with low OXC doses (< 900 mg/day), but serum concentrations of testosterone, gonadotropins, and SHBG were high in patients with a daily OXC dose > or = 900 mg. CONCLUSIONS: VPA increases serum androgen concentrations in men with epilepsy. The endocrine effects of CBZ and OXC were different, because CBZ appears to decrease the bioactivity of androgens, whereas OXC does not.  相似文献
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PURPOSE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may affect serum thyroid hormone concentrations. This study aimed to evaluate thyroid function in men taking carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OCBZ), or valproate (VPA) for epilepsy. METHODS: Ninety men with epilepsy (40 taking CBZ, 29 taking OCBZ, and 21 taking VPA monotherapy) and 25 control subjects participated in the study. After clinical examination, a blood sample for hormone, gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT) and antibody (ab) assays was obtained. RESULTS: Serum thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations were low in men taking CBZ or OCBZ. Forty-five percent of men taking CBZ and 24% of men taking OCBZ had serum T4 and/or FT4 levels below the reference range. However, no correlations were found between T4 or FT4 and GGT concentrations in men taking CBZ or OCBZ. Thirteen percent of men taking CBZ, 17% of men taking OCBZ, and 6% of control men had increased levels of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-ab and/or thyroglobulin (TG)-ab, but these were not associated with altered serum thyroid hormone concentrations. Serum triiodothyronine and thyrotropin levels in men taking CBZ or OCBZ were normal. In men taking VPA, the concentrations of thyroid hormones, thyrotropin, and antithyroid ab were normal. CONCLUSIONS: Serum thyroid hormone concentrations are low in CBZ- or OCBZ-treated men. However, these low levels do not seem to be due to liver enzyme induction or activation of immunologic mechanisms. Therefore, interference with hypothalamic regulation of thyroid function by CBZ and OCBZ seems possible. VPA does not have any significant effects on thyroid function.  相似文献
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Decreased driving ability in people with Parkinson's disease   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
BACKGROUND—Driving is a complex form of activityinvolving especially cognitive and psychomotor functions. Thesefunctions may be impaired by Parkinson's disease. The relation betweenParkinson's disease and driving ability is still obscure andclinicians have to make decisions concerning the driving ability oftheir patients based on insufficent information. Until now no studieshave compared different methods for evaluating the driving ability ofpatients with Parkinson's disease.
METHODS—The driving ability of 20 patients withidiopathic Parkinson's disease and 20 age and sex matched healthycontrol subjects was evaluated by a neurologist, psychologist,vocational rehabilitation counsellor, and driving instructor using astandard 10 point scale. The patients and controls also evaluated theirown driving ability. Cognitive and psychomotor laboratory tests and astructured on road driving test were used for evaluating the subjects'driving ability.
RESULTS—The patients with Parkinson's diseaseperformed worse than the controls both in the laboratory tests and inthe driving test. There was a high correlation between the laboratorytests and driving test both in the patient group and in the controlgroup. Disease indices were not associated with the driving test. The neurologist overestimated the ability of patients with Parkinson's disease to drive compared with the driving ability evaluated by thestructured on road driving test and with the driving related laboratorytests. Patients themselves were not capable of evaluating their ownability reliably.
CONCLUSION—Driving ability is greatly decreased inpatients with even mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. Theevaluation of patients' driving ability is very difficult to carry outwithout psychological and psychomotor tests and/or a driving test.

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OBJECTIVES: Stroke often causes physical, cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction, which markedly decreases the driving ability of stroke patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the driving ability of stroke patients using multidisciplinary clinical evaluation and driving-related laboratory tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A neurologist evaluated the driving ability of 20 male stroke patients on the basis of his own clinical examination and the observations and measurements of a neurological multidisciplinary rehabilitation team. After that a traffic psychologist evaluated the patients' driving ability on the basis of the driving-related cognitive and psychomotor laboratory tests. The patients themselves also evaluated their driving ability, as did their spouses. All the evaluations were carried out independently using the same 10-point scale. The control group consisted of 20 healthy males, matched by age and driving experience, who went through the same laboratory test package as the patients did. RESULTS: The stroke patients had more deficiencies in all tested driving related cognitive and psychomotor functions than the controls. The neurologist and the psychologist together evaluated 12 (60%) of the 20 stroke patients being unable to drive; 8 patients out of 11 with non-dominant hemisphere lesion and 4 in the dominant group. The patients themselves and their spouses had a clear tendency to overestimate driving ability compared to the estimates of the neurologist and the psychologist. The hit-rate of the evaluations of the neurologist and traffic psychologist (75%) was high. CONCLUSION: Stroke patients form a risk group as drivers due to their decreased cognitive and psychomotor abilities, and driving ability should always be evaluated after stroke. The results suggest that multidisciplinary neurological teams are able to evaluate the driving ability of stroke patients reliably. A careful evaluation of driving ability without a driving test requires assessment of cognitive and psychomotor functions critical in driving, which is not feasible for physicians without the support of a multidisciplinary team and/or traffic-related laboratory tests.  相似文献
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