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BACKGROUND: Recent observations have indicated that reproductive endocrine disorders are common among women taking valproate (VPA) for epilepsy, but it is not known whether respective abnormalities develop in men taking VPA for epilepsy. Carbamazepine (CBZ) may induce endocrine disorders in men with epilepsy, but the endocrine effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC) are not known. METHODS: Reproductive endocrine function was evaluated in 90 men taking VPA (n = 21), CBZ (n = 40), or OXC (n = 29) as monotherapy for epilepsy and in 25 healthy control men. RESULTS: Twelve men (57%) taking VPA had increased serum androgen levels. The mean serum level of androstenedione was high in patients taking VPA. Serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were low, and serum concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were high in men taking CBZ. The endocrine effects of OXC seemed to be dose-dependent, because serum hormone levels were normal in patients with low OXC doses (< 900 mg/day), but serum concentrations of testosterone, gonadotropins, and SHBG were high in patients with a daily OXC dose > or = 900 mg. CONCLUSIONS: VPA increases serum androgen concentrations in men with epilepsy. The endocrine effects of CBZ and OXC were different, because CBZ appears to decrease the bioactivity of androgens, whereas OXC does not.  相似文献
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BACKGROUND: Long-term treatment with valproate (VPA) or carbamazepine (CBZ) may induce reproductive endocrine disorders in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Serum concentrations of reproductive hormones were studied in 17 women and 22 men with recently diagnosed epilepsy before they started either VPA or CBZ medication, and 1 and 3 months later. RESULTS: No weight gain or clinical signs of hormonal disorders were observed during the follow-up. The mean serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) decreased, in women starting VPA. Serum testosterone levels increased in half of the women on VPA. Serum concentrations of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone increased, and gonadotropins decreased, in men on VPA during the follow-up. Serum SHBG levels increased and DHEAS decreased during the first months of CBZ treatment in both sexes. In addition, the free-androgen index decreased in men after starting CBZ. CONCLUSIONS: Hormonal changes occur after only 1 month's use of VPA or CBZ. VPA-treatment seems to be associated with increased serum androgen levels, but the profile of hormonal changes appears to be different in women than in men. The use of CBZ, in turn, was associated with increased SHBG concentrations and thus with diminished sex steroid function in both sexes. The women with increased serum testosterone levels in the early phase of VPA medication may be at increased risk for VPA-related endocrine disorders later during treatment.  相似文献
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PURPOSE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may affect serum thyroid hormone concentrations. This study aimed to evaluate thyroid function in men taking carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OCBZ), or valproate (VPA) for epilepsy. METHODS: Ninety men with epilepsy (40 taking CBZ, 29 taking OCBZ, and 21 taking VPA monotherapy) and 25 control subjects participated in the study. After clinical examination, a blood sample for hormone, gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT) and antibody (ab) assays was obtained. RESULTS: Serum thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations were low in men taking CBZ or OCBZ. Forty-five percent of men taking CBZ and 24% of men taking OCBZ had serum T4 and/or FT4 levels below the reference range. However, no correlations were found between T4 or FT4 and GGT concentrations in men taking CBZ or OCBZ. Thirteen percent of men taking CBZ, 17% of men taking OCBZ, and 6% of control men had increased levels of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-ab and/or thyroglobulin (TG)-ab, but these were not associated with altered serum thyroid hormone concentrations. Serum triiodothyronine and thyrotropin levels in men taking CBZ or OCBZ were normal. In men taking VPA, the concentrations of thyroid hormones, thyrotropin, and antithyroid ab were normal. CONCLUSIONS: Serum thyroid hormone concentrations are low in CBZ- or OCBZ-treated men. However, these low levels do not seem to be due to liver enzyme induction or activation of immunologic mechanisms. Therefore, interference with hypothalamic regulation of thyroid function by CBZ and OCBZ seems possible. VPA does not have any significant effects on thyroid function.  相似文献
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Valproate is effective for treatment of a variety of seizure types both in adults and in children with epilepsy, but it induces obesity and polycystic ovaries in a considerable proportion of adult women, particularly when the medication is started before the age of 20. In the present study we evaluated reproductive endocrine function in 41 girls, 8 to 18 years old, taking valproate for epilepsy and in 54 healthy control girls. Among the girls taking valproate, 16 were prepubertal, 11 were pubertal, and 14 were postpubertal, and the corresponding numbers were 20, 13, and 21 in the control group. The mean serum testosterone concentrations of prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal girls taking valproate were significantly higher than those of the control girls at the same pubertal stage. Hyperandrogenism, defined as serum testosterone levels higher than the mean + 2SD in the control girls at the same pubertal stage, was seen in 38% of prepubertal, 36% of pubertal, and 57% of postpubertal girls taking valproate. In addition, postpubertal girls taking valproate were more obese than the controls and the mean serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 concentration of pubertal and postpubertal hyperandrogenic girls taking valproate was lower than in valproate-treated girls without hyperandrogenism. Valproate may induce hyperandrogenism in girls with epilepsy during the sensitive period of pubertal maturation, and the frequency of hyperandrogenism increases with pubertal development. This emphasizes the importance of careful endocrine observation of girls taking valproate for epilepsy.  相似文献
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