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Nerve injury leads to novel sympathetic innervation of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). We have hypothesized previously that the degenerating nerve increases the sympathetic sprouting in the DRG and pain after chronic sciatic constriction injury (CCI) by virtue of its influence on sensory and sympathetic axons spared by the injury. However, L5 spinal nerve ligation and transection (SNL) results in the complete isolation of the L5 DRG from the degenerating stump, yet sympathetic axons invade the ganglion, and sympathetically dependent pain develops. We investigated the role of Wallerian degeneration in both sympathetic sprouting and neuropathic pain in these two models of painful peripheral neuropathy by comparing responses of normal C57B1/6J and C57B1/Wldsmice in which degeneration is impaired. After CCI, Wldsmice, unlike 6J mice, did not develop thermal or mechanoallodynia or sympathetic innervation of the L5 DRG. After SNL, both strains developed mechanoallodynia and sympathetic sprouts in L5, but only 6J mice developed thermal allodynia. Observation of the origins of the invading sympathetic axons revealed that after CCI, sympathetics innervating blood vessels and dura (probably intact) sprouted into the ganglion, but after SNL sympathetics (probably axotomized) invaded from the injured spinal nerve. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that there are two mechanisms for sympathetic sprouting into DRG, differentially dependent on Wallerian degeneration. Analysis of pain behavior in these animals reveals that (i) mechanoallodynia and sympathetic innervation of the DRG tend to coincide and (ii) thermal allodynia and Wallerian degeneration, but not sympathetic innervation of the DRG tend to coincide.  相似文献
2.
Following a unilateral chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive (IR) fiber density increases in the ipsilateral gracile nucleus, and this is more pronounced in aged (16-month) rats where the fibers are dystrophic. In this study we show that a second type of partial sciatic nerve injury, a half-transection, also induces CGRP-IR fibers in the gracile nucleus, but this effect is strongly age-dependent, being much more pronounced in 8- to 10-month-old rats than in 2- to 3-month-old rats. Dystrophic CGRP-IR fibers were rarely observed in 8- to 10-month-old animals, so the increased reaction in aged animals and axonal dystrophy are separate phenomena. Using double-labeling with fluorescent dye tracing for 8- to 10-month-old rats, we showed that neuron profiles in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with peripheral axons spared by the partial sciatic nerve injury were 10 times more likely to be CGRP mRNA-positive than profiles with injured peripheral axons, suggesting that spared neurons are more likely to contribute to the increase in CGRP-IR fibers in the gracile nucleus. Using combined fluorescent dye tracing with in situ hybridization for CGRP mRNA or CGRP immunostaining, we further showed that CGRP-expressing DRG neuron profiles with central projections to the gracile nucleus had peripheral axons spared by the partial nerve injury. We conclude that the increased CGRP immunoreactivity in the gracile nucleus following partial sciatic nerve injury originates from primary sensory neurons with axons spared by the injury. These neurons may still transmit cutaneous sensory information and thus the increased CGRP immunoreactive fibers in the gracile nucleus may be involved in the mechanical allodynia characteristic of neuropathic pain syndromes following partial nerve injury.  相似文献
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Somatic and visceral sensory information enters the central nervous system (CNS) via root entry zones where sensory axons span an environment consisting of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the CNS. While the embryonic extension of these sensory axons into the CNS has been well-characterized, little is known about the subsequent, largely postnatal development of the glial elements of the root entry zones. Here we sought to establish a comparative developmental timecourse of the glial elements in the postnatal (P0, P3, P7, P14) and adult rat of three root entry zones: the spinal nerve dorsal root entry zone, the trigeminal root entry zone, and the vagal dorsal root entry zone. We compared entry zone development based on the expression of antigens known to be expressed in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, Schwann cells, radial glial fibres and the PNS extracellular matrix. These studies revealed an unexpected distribution among glial cells of several antigens. In particular, antibodies used to label mature oligodendrocytes (RIP) transiently labelled immature Schwann cell cytoplasm, and a radial glial antigen (recognized by the 3CB2 antibody) initially decreased, and then increased in postnatal astrocytes. While all three root entry zones had reached morphological and antigenic maturity by P14, the glial elements comprising the PNS–CNS interface of cranial root entry zones (the trigeminal root entry zone and the vagal dorsal root entry zone) matured earlier than those of the spinal nerve dorsal root entry zone.  相似文献
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