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INTRODUCTION: On 09 April 2004, Typhoon Sudal struck the Island of Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Over 90% of homes, public utilities, and public property were damaged or destroyed. Nearly 10% of the population was displaced to shelters, and the majority of the population was without drinking water or power. United States disaster workers were deployed to Yap for three months to assist in the recovery and relief efforts. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute healthcare needs of the US disaster relief population serving in a remote setting with limited medical resources. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all disaster relief workers presenting to an emergency clinic in Yap during the disaster relief effort from April 2004-July 2004 was performed. Investigators extracted demographic data, chief complaints, medical histories, medical management, disposition, and outcome data from the clinic charts. RESULTS: Together, the 60 disaster workers present on Yap during the relief effort made 163 patient contacts in the disaster emergency clinic. A total of 92% of patient contacts were for minor medical complaints or minor trauma, 13% were for upper-respiratory infections, 9% were for gastrointestinal illness, and 9% were for dermatological problems. Eight percent of visits were for serious medical problems or trauma. Life-threatening illnesses or injuries did not occur. CONCLUSIONS: Disaster relief workers on Yap frequently utilized the disaster relief clinic. In general, disaster workers remained healthy during the relief effort in Yap, and most injuries and illnesses were minor. On-site medical providers resulted in rapid care and stabilization, and after treatment, disaster workers were able to return to duty.  相似文献
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BACKGROUND: Provision of palliative care for patients with non-cancer conditions is hindered by the difficulty of predicting when people will die and fear of causing distress by raising end-of-life issues. OBJECTIVES: To compare patients' and professionals' (1) estimations of prognosis; (2) perceptions of the seriousness of the illness and needs for supportive care; and (3) acceptability of this sensitive research, in end-stage cancer and non-cancer diseases. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A teaching hospital and a Marie Curie hospice in London. SUBJECTS: Twenty patients with advanced non-malignant disease (heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and renal failure) and 20 patients with advanced cancer, and their physicians in charge. Method: A feasibility study using vignettes to aid patients and doctors estimate of prognoses. Main outcome measures were (1) patients' and physicians' estimates of health status, care needs and prognosis; and (2) patient survival. RESULTS: Patients were willing and able to estimate their own life expectancy and cancer patients correctly estimated that they had a poorer prognosis than non-cancer patients. Non-cancer patients perceived that they had similar needs for supportive care as cancer patients. Physicians made little distinction in palliative care needs between patients with and without cancer, but tended to make more pessimistic estimates of prognosis in non-cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients are able to judge their health status and life expectancy and do not object to questions about end-of-life care. Cancer and non-cancer patients have similar needs for supportive care. We need further evidence on the value of self-rated prognosis and how to provide palliative and supportive care for all patients who are near death.  相似文献
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BACKGROUND: Cancer patients who receive care from specialist palliative care services in the UK are younger than those who do not receive this care. This may be explained by age-related differences in attitudes to end-of-life care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between age and i) attitudes to death and preparation for death; and ii) knowledge about, and attitudes to, cancer and palliative care. DESIGN: Interviews with older people, using a novel questionnaire developed using nominal groups. Main comparisons were made between people aged 55-74 with those aged 75 years and over. SETTING: General practices in London. SUBJECTS: 129 people aged 55-74 and 127 people aged 75 years or over on the lists of general practitioners. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey to determine knowledge and experience of hospice care; preparation for end-of-life; and attitudes to end-of-life issues. RESULTS: Participants were knowledgeable about specialist palliative care and almost half had some indirect contact with a hospice. People aged >74 were less likely than younger participants to want their doctor to end their life in a terminal illness. Although they believed death was easier to face for older people, they did not believe that younger people deserved more consideration than older people when dying, or that they should have priority for hospice care. Education, social class, hospice knowledge and anxiety about death had little influence on overall attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: The relative under-utilization of hospice and specialist palliative care services by older people with cancer in the UK cannot be explained by their attitudes to end-of-life issues and palliative care.  相似文献
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OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that the number of patients who leave without being seen is correlated with the simple-to-use National Emergency Department Overcrowding Scale (NEDOCS). METHODS: Results of a 6-item ED overcrowding scale (NEDOCS) were collected prospectively over a 17-day study period. The following additional data were extracted from records for each 2-hour study period: (1) number of registered patients, (2) number of ambulances that arrived, and (3) number of patients signed in that hour who eventually left without being seen. Spearman correlation coefficients were computed for the leaving without being seen (LWBS) rate with the NEDOCS score at the time of patient presentation and 2, 4, and 6 hours later. RESULTS: The study period represents two hundred fourteen 2-hour periods. The LWBS rate was determined for 100% of the times; NEDOCS scores were determined for a sampling of 62% of the times spread equally over all hours of the day and days of the week. Correlation between the NEDOCS score and LWBS was 0.665. CONCLUSION: The NEDOCS score is well correlated with LWBS.  相似文献
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the fixation rigidities of a custom designed blade plate, a 2.7 mm T-plate and 3.0 mm cannulated screws. DESIGN: A cadaveric non-comminuted radial neck fracture model was employed to test the three fixation methods, using a multi-directional shear loading protocol. BACKGROUND: The management of displaced radial neck fractures in adults remains unsatisfactory due to failure of internal fixation with secondary loss of reduction, and non-unions. METHODS: The stiffness of the various fixation methods was measured in five directions of loading in the transverse plane. Failure testing was performed on the final testing condition for each specimen, in a posteroulnar to anteroradial direction. RESULTS: The direction of specimen loading did not have a significant effect on the stiffness of the various methods of fixation (P = 0.4). There was no significant difference in the fixation stiffness between the 3.0 mm screws or blade plate, however, both were superior to the T-plate (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although the 2.7 mm T-plate has been reported in the literature as a viable method of fixation for radial neck fractures, it may not be optimal from the viewpoint of fixation stability. In the setting of a non-comminuted radial neck fracture, the use of cross-cannulated screws or blade plate fixation is preferred.Relevance This study supports the use of cross-cannulated screws or blade plate fixation for non-comminuted fractures of the radial neck.  相似文献
6.

Objective

To determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and annual health care costs in Veterans.

Patients and Methods

The sample included 9942 subjects (mean age, 59±11 years) undergoing a maximal exercise test for clinical reasons between January 2005 and December 2012. Cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as a percentage of age-predicted peak metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved, was categorized in quartiles. Total and annualized health care costs, derived from the Veterans Administration Allocated Resource Center, were compared using multiple regression, controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics.

Results

A gradient for reduced health care costs was observed as CRF increased, with subjects in the least-fit quartile having approximately $14,662 (P<.001) higher overall costs per patient per year compared with those in the fittest quartile, after controlling for potential confounding variables. Each 1-MET higher increment in fitness was associated with a $1592 annual reduction in health care costs (5.6% lower cost per MET), and each higher quartile of fitness was associated with a $4163 annual cost reduction per patient. The effect of CRF was more pronounced among subjects without cardiovascular disease (CVD), suggesting that the results were not driven by the possibility that less-fit individuals had greater CVD. Cost savings attributable to higher fitness were greatest in overweight and obese subjects, with lower savings observed among those individuals with a body mass index less than 25 kg/m2. In a model including historical, clinical, and exercise test responses, heart failure was the strongest predictor of health care costs, followed by CRF (P<.01).

Conclusion

Low CRF is associated with higher health care costs. Efforts to improve CRF may not only improve health but also result in lower health care costs.  相似文献
7.
Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) and ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric (II/IH) nerve blocks have been described as analgesic adjuncts for inguinal hernia repair, but the efficacy of these techniques in providing intraoperative anesthesia, either individually or together, is not known. We designed this retrospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that combining TAP and II/IH nerve blocks (“double TAP” technique) results in greater accordance between the preoperative anesthetic plan and actual anesthetic technique provided when compared to TAP alone. Based on this study, double TAP may be preferred for patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair who wish to avoid general anesthesia.  相似文献
8.
There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well‐received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority.  相似文献
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