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1.
Natural products from endophytic microorganisms   总被引:44,自引:0,他引:44  
Endophytic microorganisms are to be found in virtually every plant on earth. These organisms reside in the living tissues of the host plant and do so in a variety of relationships ranging from symbiotic to pathogenic. Endophytes may contribute to their host plant by producing a plethora of substances that provide protection and ultimately survival value to the plant. Ultimately, these compounds, once isolated and characterized, may also have potential for use in modern medicine, agriculture, and industry. Novel antibiotics, antimycotics, immunosuppressants, and anticancer compounds are only a few examples of what has been found after the isolation and culturing of individual endophytes followed by purification and characterization of some of their natural products. The prospects of finding new drugs that may be effective candidates for treating newly developing diseases in humans, plants, and animals are great. Other applications in industry and agriculture may also be discovered among the novel products produced by endophytic microbes.  相似文献
2.
Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
This review is an updated and expanded version of two prior reviews that were published in this journal in 1997 and 2003. In the case of all approved agents the time frame has been extended to include the 251/2 years from 01/1981 to 06/2006 for all diseases worldwide and from 1950 (earliest so far identified) to 06/2006 for all approved antitumor drugs worldwide. We have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a "natural product mimic" or "NM" to join the original primary divisions. From the data presented, the utility of natural products as sources of novel structures, but not necessarily the final drug entity, is still alive and well. Thus, in the area of cancer, over the time frame from around the 1940s to date, of the 155 small molecules, 73% are other than "S" (synthetic), with 47% actually being either natural products or directly derived therefrom. In other areas, the influence of natural product structures is quite marked, with, as expected from prior information, the antiinfective area being dependent on natural products and their structures. Although combinatorial chemistry techniques have succeeded as methods of optimizing structures and have, in fact, been used in the optimization of many recently approved agents, we are able to identify only one de novo combinatorial compound approved as a drug in this 25 plus year time frame. We wish to draw the attention of readers to the rapidly evolving recognition that a significant number of natural product drugs/leads are actually produced by microbes and/or microbial interactions with the "host from whence it was isolated", and therefore we consider that this area of natural product research should be expanded significantly.  相似文献
3.
The marine environment has proven to be a very rich source of extremely potent compounds that have demonstrated significant activities in antitumor, antiinflammatory, analgesia, immunomodulation, allergy, and anti-viral assays. Although the case can and has been made that the nucleosides such as Ara-A and Ara-C are derived from knowledge gained from investigations of bioactive marine nucleosides, no drug directly from marine sources (whether isolated or by total synthesis) has yet made it to the commercial sector in any disease. However, as shown in this review, there are now significant numbers of very interesting molecules that have come from marine sources, or have been synthesized as a result of knowledge gained from a prototypical compound, that are either in or approaching Phase II/III clinical trials in cancer, analgesia, allergy, and cognitive diseases. A substantial number of other potential agents are following in their wake in preclinical trials in these and in other diseases.  相似文献
4.
Anti-HIV activity of medicinal herbs: usage and potential development   总被引:22,自引:0,他引:22  
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which subsequently leads to significant suppression of immune functions. AIDS is a significant threat to the health of mankind, and the search for effective therapies to treat AIDS is of paramount importance. Several chemical anti-HIV agents have been developed. However, besides the high cost, there are adverse effects and limitations associated with using chemotherapy for the treatment of HIV infection. Thus, herbal medicines have frequently been used as an alternative medical therapy by HIV positive individuals and AIDS patients. The aim of this review is to summarize research findings for herbal medicines, which are endowed with the ability to inhibit HIV. In this article, we will emphasize a Chinese herbal medicine, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and its identified components (i.e., baicalein and baicalin), which have been shown to inhibit infectivity and replication of HIV. Potential development of anti-AIDS compounds using molecular modeling methods will also be discussed.  相似文献
5.
中医痰湿体质的判定标准研究   总被引:21,自引:1,他引:20  
体质分类是中医体质学研究的基础与核心内容,痰湿体质是中医基本体质类型的一种。本文在既往体质分类研究的基础上,对痰湿体质特征进行表述,确立痰湿体质判定标准,并采用基因芯片技术对痰湿体质进行外周血基因表达谱研究,初步为体质分类提供了分子生物学依据。本研究旨在规范和深化中医体质分类的研究。  相似文献
6.
植物组织破碎提取法及闪式提取器的创制与实践   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
本文在对中药提取的原理与实现过程进行深刻剖析的基础上,首次对组织破碎提取法的基本原理、实现过程、闪式提取器的构造及八大优势和应用实践进行了系统论述。用十余年的实践过程证明,闪式提取器集粉碎、浸泡、搅拌、振动等技术优势于一体,使完成一次提取只需数秒至数十秒间,仅为常规回流提取的数十至数百分之一,不但避免了不耐热成分的破坏,且收率高,操作简便,有利环保等。  相似文献
7.
Annonaceous acetogenins: recent progress   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
The Annonaceous acetogenins are promising new antitumor and pesticidal agents that are found only in the plant family Annonaceae. Chemically, they are derivatives of long-chain fatty acids. Biologically, they exhibit their potent bioactivities through depletion of ATP levels via inhibiting complex I of mitochondria and inhibiting the NADH oxidase of plasma membranes of tumor cells. Thus, they thwart ATP-driven resistance mechanisms. This review presents the progress made in the chemistry, biology, and development of these compounds since December 1995.  相似文献
8.
The isolation and structure determination of a new chlorinated benzophenone antibiotic, pestalone (1), is described. The new compound was produced by a cultured marine fungus only when a unicellular marine bacterium, strain CNJ-328, was co-cultured in the fungal fermentation. The fungus, isolated from the surface of the brown alga Rosenvingea sp. collected in the Bahamas Islands, was identified as an undescribed member of the genus Pestalotia. The structure of 1, initially assigned with only modest confidence by combined spectral and chemical data, was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Pestalone (1) exhibits moderate in vitro cytotoxicity in the National Cancer Institute's 60 human tumor cell line screen (mean GI(50) = 6.0 microM). More importantly, pestalone shows potent antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 37 ng/mL) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (MIC = 78 ng/mL), indicating that pestalone should be evaluated in advanced models of infectious disease.  相似文献
9.
Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (polypore) fungi   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
This review describes biologically active natural products isolated from Aphyllophorales, many of which are known as polypores. Polypores are a large group of terrestrial fungi of the phylum Basdiomycota (basidiomycetes), and they along with certain Ascomycota are a major source of pharmacologically active substances. There are about 25 000 species of basidiomycetes, of which about 500 are members of the Aphyllophorales, a polyphyletic group that contains the polypores. Many of these fungi have circumboreal distributions in North America, Europe, and Asia and broad distributions on all inhabited continents and Africa; only a small number of the most common species with the most obvious fruiting bodies (basidiocarps) have been evaluated for biological activity. An estimated 75% of polypore fungi that have been tested show strong antimicrobial activity, and these may constitute a good source for developing new antibiotics. Numerous compounds from these fungi also display antiviral, cytotoxic, and/or antineoplastic activities. Additional important components of this vast arsenal of compounds are polysaccharides derived from the fungal cell walls. These compounds have attracted significant attention in recent years because of their immunomodulatory activities, resulting in antitumor effects. These high molecular weight compounds, often called biological response modifiers (BRM), or immunopotentiators, prevent carcinogenesis, show direct anticancer effects, and prevent tumor metastasis. Some of the protein-bound polysaccharides from polypores and other basidiomycetes have found their way to the market in Japan as anticancer drugs. Finally, numerous compounds with cardiovascular, phytotoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, insecticidal, and nematocidal activities, isolated from polypores, are also presented. In fact many of the fungi mentioned in this paper have long been used in herbal medicine, including polypores such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling Zhi), Laetiporus sulphureus (Chicken-of-the-Woods), Trametes versicolor (Yun Zhi), Grifola umbellata (Zhu Lin), Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), and Wolfiporia cocos (Hoelen).  相似文献
10.
Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid: research perspectives   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are ubiquitous triterpenoids in plant kingdom, medicinal herbs, and are integral part of the human diet. During the last decade over 700 research articles have been published on their research, reflecting tremendous interest and progress in our understanding of these triterpenoids. This included the isolation and purification of these tritepernoids from various plants and herbs, the chemical modifications to make more effective and water soluble derivatives, the pharmacological research on their beneficial effects, the toxicity studies, and the clinical use of these triterpenoids in various diseases including anticancer chemotherapies. A briefly commentary is attempted here for their research perspectives.  相似文献
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