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1.
The present study evaluated the beneficial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum L.; 100mg/kg/day) on the alterations in vascular reactivity of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. After 8 weeks of treatment, thoracic aortic rings of rats were mounted in organ baths and contractile responses to phenylephrine and relaxant responses to acetylcholine and isosorbide dinitrate were assessed. Induction of diabetes significantly increased contractile responses to phenylephrine and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine in aortic rings, but did not change endothelium-independent relaxation to isosorbide dinitrate. Garlic administration significantly improved the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and decreased the enhanced contractile response to phenylephrine in diabetic rats. It is concluded that intraperitoneal administration of aqueous garlic extract can improve endothelial dysfunction in insulin-dependent model of uncontrolled diabetes.  相似文献
2.
The effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension.   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Considering the high prevalence of hypertension, its debilitating end organ damage, and the side effects of chemical drugs used for its treatment, we conducted this experimental study to evaluate the effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension. For this purpose, 31 and 23 patients with moderate essential hypertension were randomly assigned to an experimental and control group, respectively. Patients with secondary hypertension or those consuming more than two drugs were excluded from the study. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured before and 15 days after the intervention. In the experimental group, 45% of the patients were male and 55% were female, and the mean age was 52.6 +/- 7.9 years. In the control group, 30% of the patients were male, 70% were female, and the mean age of the patients was 51.5 +/- 10.1 years. Statistical findings showed an 11.2% lowering of the systolic blood pressure and a 10.7% decrease of diastolic pressure in the experimental group 12 days after beginning the treatment, as compared with the first day. The difference between the systolic blood pressures of the two groups was significant, as was the difference of the diastolic pressures of the two groups. Three days after stopping the treatment, systolic blood pressure was elevated by 7.9%, and diastolic pressure was elevated by 5.6% in the experimental and control groups. This difference between the two groups was also significant. This study proves the public belief and the results of in vitro studies concerning the effects of sour tea on lowering high blood pressure. More extensive studies on this subject are needed.  相似文献
3.
Psyllium is a bulk-forming laxative and is high in both fiber and mucilage. The beneficial effect of dietary fiber in the management of type II diabetes, has not been totally demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma-lowering effects of 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium husk fiber, as an adjunct to dietary and drug therapy on lipid and glucose levels, in patients with type II diabetes. Patients were randomly selected from an outpatient clinic of primary care to participate in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which Plantago ovata Forsk., or placebo was given in combination with their anti-diabetic drugs. Forty-nine subjects were included in the study that were given diet counseling before the study and then followed for 8 weeks in the treatment period. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS) was measured every 2 weeks, and total plasma cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was also measured at the beginning and ending of the study. The test products (psyllium or placebo) were supplied to subjects in identically labeled foil packets containing a 5.1g dose of product, to consume two doses per day, half an hour before breakfast and dinner. Both products were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events related to treatment was reported in either. Better gastric tolerance to metformin was recorded in the psyllium group. FBS, and HbA1c, showed a significant reduction (p<0.05), whereas HDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) following psyllium treatment. LDL/HDL ratio was significantly decreased (p<0.05). Our results show that 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium for persons with type II diabetes is safe, well tolerated, and improves glycemic control.  相似文献
4.
Increasing the ectopic uterine motility is the major reason for primary dysmenorrhea. This motility is the basis for several symptoms including for pain is the main complaints of patients with primary dysmenorrhea. There are several mechanisms, which initiate dysmenorrhea. Therefore, different compounds can be employed to control its symptoms. In long-term therapy, combination of oestrogens and progestins may be useful. In short-term therapy, dysmenorrhea sometimes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used. Most of NSAIDs in long-term therapy show severe adverse effects. In an attempt to find agents with less adverse effect the fennel essential oil (FEO) was chosen for this investigation. In this article, effects of FEO on the uterine contraction and estimation of LD(50) in rat were described. For assessment of pharmacological effects on the isolated rat uterus, oxytocin (0.1, 1 and 10 mu/ml) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) (5x10(-5) M) were employed to induce muscle contraction. Administration of different doses of FEO reduced the intensity of oxytocin and PGE(2) induced contractions significantly (25 and 50 microg/ml for oxytocin and 10 and 20 microg/ml PGE(2), respectively). FEO also reduced the frequency of contractions induced by PGE(2) but not with oxytocin. LD(50) of FEO was obtained in the female rats by using moving average method. The estimated LD(50) was 1326 mg/kg. No obvious damage was observed in the vital organs of the dead animals.  相似文献
5.
Forty-five species of 29 plant families used in the traditional medicine by Iranian people, showed antibacterial activities against one or more of the bacterial species: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. No plant showed activity against Serratia marcescens; Bordetella bronchiseptica being the most susceptible species. All extracts showed the same activity 18 months later.  相似文献
6.
The blood glucose lowering effect of Urtica dioica (Stinging Nettle) as a medicinal plant has been noted in old writings such as those of Avicenna. Recently, there has also been other investigators that indicated the hypoglycemic effect of Urtica dioica. But so far, the mechanism of this effect has not been deduced. In this report, a perifusion system is arranged in which an exact number of Langerhans Islets were exposed to several fractions of extracts of Urtica dioica by TLC. The active ingredient fraction named F(1), caused a marked increase in insulin secretion. A simultaneous assay of glucose showed that the increase in insulin level was associated with a decrease in glucose level. Furthermore, the active component of Urtica dioica was found to increase the insulin content of blood sera in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats that were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with the active ingredient of the extract. The in vivo studies presented in this report show that not only an increase in insulin level of blood sera was observed in rats after 30 min from the initial point of injection but a simultaneous decrease of blood sugar was detected when similar sera was tested for glucose. The increase in insulin level was six times during the 120 min of our determination. The decrease in blood sugar was found to be similar both in the level and time of initiation. On the basis of our findings, we assume that F(1) is the active ingredient of plant leaves extract. The results show that the blood lowering effect of the extract was due to the enhancement of insulin secretion by Langerhance Isletes.  相似文献
7.
Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) leaves extract, an Iranian medicinal plant, were examined. For anti-inflammatory activity, the formalin-induced edema model was used. Hyperthermia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 20% (w/v) aqueous suspension of brewer's yeast. Sodium salicylate (SS) was used as a positive control. Both TFG and SS significantly reduced formalin-induced edema in single dose (TFG 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, SS 300 mg/kg) and chronic administration (TFG 1000 mg/kg and SS 300 mg/kg). TFG and SS also significantly reduced hyperthermia induced by brewer's yeast in 1 and 2 h after their administration. The results indicate that the TFG leaves extract possess anti-inflammatory as well as antipyretic properties in both i.p. and p.o. administration. Phytochemical studies indicate that alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, and phenols are the major component in the extract. Although existence of three anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects in this extract suggest a NSAID-like mechanism for it, but the presence of alkaloids, the absence of other effective compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, steroids, etc., and also its analgesic effect on tail-flick test that usually is not produced by NSAIDs, suggest another mechanism for the extract. So the possibility of alkaloids as effective compounds, in this extract, increases.  相似文献
8.
In this study, probable antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit components, were evaluated. For evaluation of antinociceptive effects, the chronic (formalin test) and acute (tail-flick) pain models of rats were used. For the anti-inflammatory effects, the paw inflammation model was used through subcutaneous injection of 5% formalin to the paw of male rats. Water extracts of the fruit and its components in the single dose were assessed through comparison with the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of sodium salicylate (SS) as a positive control. Administration of 300 mg/kg of SS (i.p.) had no effect on tail flick latency, while 1000 mg/kg of total (i.p. and p.o.) and endocarp (i.p.) extract, increased this latency (P<0.01, P<0.001, respectively), which was not reversed by naloxone (2 mg/kg). In the formalin test, SS (300 mg/kg, i.p.) and the extract (1000 mg/kg, p.o. ) alleviated the animals nociception in the second phase, while in the first phase they were not effective. The total and endocarp extracts (1000 mg/kg, i.p.) showed a significant effect on both phases (P<0.01, P<0.001, respectively) which was also not reversed by naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.). In the acute anti-inflammatory test, the total extract and the aqueous extract of individual fruit components showed a significant effect (P<0.001). This anti-inflammatory effect was not significant compared with the anti-inflammatory effect of SS. Because of the extract effect on the tail-flick latency and both phases of the formalin test, the site of its analgesic action is probably central, and the mechanism of antinociceptive action of the extract are not related to the opioid system. Our phytochemical studies indicated that aqueous extract of E. angustifolia fruit contains flavonoids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides.  相似文献
9.
The antihyperglycaemic activity of a Securigera securidaca aqueous infusion and an ethanol maceration extract of seeds was studied in normoglycaemic, glucose-induced hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The acute toxicity of the ethanol extract was more than that of the aqueous one. The phytochemical analysis showed that the seed extracts were rich in flavonoids. The intraperitoneal and oral administration of the aqueous and ethanol extracts significantly reduced blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In normoglycaemic and glucose-induced hyperglycaemic mice, the blood glucose levels were not significantly different from the control. Glibenclamide was not able to lower blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, while it significantly lowered the blood sugar in normoglycaemic mice. The results indicate that S. securidaca seed extracts significantly reduce blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice by a mechanism different from that of sulfonylurea agents.  相似文献
10.

Aim of study

Since the leaves of olive have been recommended in the literature as a remedy for the treatment of diabetes and they also contain antioxidant agents, we decided to investigate the possible effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) on in vitro and in vivo models of diabetic pain neuropathy.

Materials and methods

The high glucose-induced cell damage in naive and NGF-treated Pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used. Tail-flick test was used to access nociceptive threshold. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Biochemical markers of neural apoptosis were evaluated using immunoblotting.

Results

We found that elevation of glucose (4 times of normal) sequentially increases functional cell damage and caspase-3 activation in NGF-treated PC12 cells. Incubation of cells with OLE (200, 400 and 600 μg/ml) decreased cell damage. Furthermore, the diabetic rats developed neuropathic pain which was evident from decreased tail-flick latency (thermal hyperalgesia). Activated caspase 3 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio were significantly increased in spinal cord of diabetic animals. OLE treatment (300 and 500 mg/kg per day) ameliorated hyperalgesia, inhibited caspase 3 activation and decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Furthermore, OLE exhibited potent DPPH free radical scavenging capacity.

Conclusion

The results suggest that olive leaf extract inhibits high glucose-induced neural damage and suppresses diabetes-induced thermal hyperalgesia. The mechanisms of these effects may be due, at least in part, to reduce neuronal apoptosis and suggest therapeutic potential of olive leaf extract in attenuation of diabetic neuropathic pain.  相似文献
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