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1.

Aim of study

Since the leaves of olive have been recommended in the literature as a remedy for the treatment of diabetes and they also contain antioxidant agents, we decided to investigate the possible effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) on in vitro and in vivo models of diabetic pain neuropathy.

Materials and methods

The high glucose-induced cell damage in naive and NGF-treated Pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used. Tail-flick test was used to access nociceptive threshold. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Biochemical markers of neural apoptosis were evaluated using immunoblotting.

Results

We found that elevation of glucose (4 times of normal) sequentially increases functional cell damage and caspase-3 activation in NGF-treated PC12 cells. Incubation of cells with OLE (200, 400 and 600 μg/ml) decreased cell damage. Furthermore, the diabetic rats developed neuropathic pain which was evident from decreased tail-flick latency (thermal hyperalgesia). Activated caspase 3 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio were significantly increased in spinal cord of diabetic animals. OLE treatment (300 and 500 mg/kg per day) ameliorated hyperalgesia, inhibited caspase 3 activation and decreased Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Furthermore, OLE exhibited potent DPPH free radical scavenging capacity.

Conclusion

The results suggest that olive leaf extract inhibits high glucose-induced neural damage and suppresses diabetes-induced thermal hyperalgesia. The mechanisms of these effects may be due, at least in part, to reduce neuronal apoptosis and suggest therapeutic potential of olive leaf extract in attenuation of diabetic neuropathic pain.  相似文献
2.
In recent years, the use of carthami flos (the flowers of Carthamus tinctorius L.) as a coloring and flavoring agent has increased as a food additive in Iran. In order to evaluate its safety, the teratogenic effects of carthami flos on the central nervous system development in mice was investigated. Furthermore, its cytotoxic effect on the rat nervous cell culture was studied to complete safety evaluations. For teratogenic studies, after natural mating, pregnant mice were divided into test and control groups. The groups were treated with different dosage regimens of aqueous carthami flos extract during 0-8 days of gestation. Embryos were then isolated at the 13th gestation day and evaluated for macroscopic, microscopic and morphometric characteristics. The results showed that in higher doses (1.6 and 2 mg/kg/day) the embryos were absorbed, whereas with lower dose (1.2 mg/kg/day) changes in external, internal and longitudinal diameters, open neuropore, changes in cellular orientation and cellular degeneration were observed. The results obtained from cytotoxic assay also demonstrated a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of carthami flos extract. It is concluded that the use of carthami flos as a food additive should be reconsidered.  相似文献
3.
The species of Glaucium have been used in Iranian herbal medicine as laxative, hypnotic, antidiabetic agents and also in the treatment of dermatitis. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the aerial parts of Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss & Huet (Papaveraceae), a native plant of Iran, were studied using carrageenan induced edema, formalin and hot plate tests. The G. grandiflorum extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg had more edema inhibition than indomethacin at the doses of 10 (P<0.01) and 8 mg/kg (P<0.001) in the carrageenan test. The ED50 (i.p.) in the edema induced by carrageenan was 13.59 mg/kg. In formalin test, the extract (60–90 mg/kg, i.p.) caused graded inhibition of both phases of formalin-induced pain. In hot plate test, the i.p. administration of the extract at the doses of 60, 70, 80 and 90 mg/kg significantly raised the pain threshold at a observation time of 45 min in comparison with control (P<0.001). The extract, at the antinociceptive doses, did not affect motor coordination of animals when assessed in the rotarod model. The 72 h acute LD50 value of this extract after i.p. administration in mice was 797.94 mg/kg.  相似文献
4.
Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae) which has been used as an antiepileptic remedy in Iranian traditional medicine was evaluated for anticonvulsant activity against experimental seizures. The seed acetone extract of F. gummosa protected mice against tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock (the median effective dose [ED(50)]=198.3 mg/kg) and especially by pentylenetetrazole (ED(50)=55 mg/kg). Neurotoxicity (sedation and motor impairment) of the extract was assessed by the rotarod test and the median toxic dose (TD(50)) value of 375.8 mg/kg was obtained. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids and alkaloids in the extract. The acceptable acute toxicity of the extract recommends further studies to determine the mechanism(s) and compound(s) involved in the anticonvulsant activity.  相似文献
5.
The present study evaluated the beneficial effect of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum L.; 100mg/kg/day) on the alterations in vascular reactivity of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. After 8 weeks of treatment, thoracic aortic rings of rats were mounted in organ baths and contractile responses to phenylephrine and relaxant responses to acetylcholine and isosorbide dinitrate were assessed. Induction of diabetes significantly increased contractile responses to phenylephrine and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine in aortic rings, but did not change endothelium-independent relaxation to isosorbide dinitrate. Garlic administration significantly improved the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and decreased the enhanced contractile response to phenylephrine in diabetic rats. It is concluded that intraperitoneal administration of aqueous garlic extract can improve endothelial dysfunction in insulin-dependent model of uncontrolled diabetes.  相似文献
6.
This study sought to examine the antihypertensive mechanism of garlic in two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rat. In this study, the effect of garlic on serum and tissue including: aorta, heart, kidney, lung as well as circulatory (serum) ACE activity in 2K1C rats were examined. Four groups of rats were selected: control "CTL", sham-operated "SHAM", hypertensive "H" and garlic-treated hypertensive "GT" group. Hypertension was induced by surgery. Four weeks post-clipping, single daily dose of 50mg of aqueous extract of garlic was given orally to "GT" rats for 4 weeks. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method.ACE activity was determined using HPLC. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly increased in "H" compared to "CTL" group. In "GT" group, blood pressure was significantly decreased compared to "H" group. The ACE activity in all tissues of "H" group was significantly increased compared to controls which was significantly decreased in garlic-treated compared to non-treated hypertensive rats. These results indicated a negative correlation between consumption of garlic, blood pressure and ACE activity in serum and different tissues in 2K1C rats, suggesting that garlic has a significant blood pressure lowering effect, which could partly be mediated by reduction in ACE activity.  相似文献
7.
The leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis Linn. (Lauraceae) has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in mice and rats. The essential oil exhibited: (1) a significant analgesic effect in tail-flick and formalin tests; (2) a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in the formalin-induced edema and (3) a moderate sedative effect at the anti-inflammatory doses. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the essential oil was comparable to reference analgesics and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs: morphine and piroxicam. Present results make the essential oil worthy of further investigations.  相似文献
8.
Artemisia dracunculus L. (Asteraceae) has been used orally as an antiepileptic remedy in Iranian folkloric medicine. The anticonvulsant potential and composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of the plant were assessed in this study. The essential oil exerted dose- and time-dependent antiseizure activity in both maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole models of experimental seizures with ED50 values of 0.84 and 0.26 ml/kg, respectively. At some anticonvulsant doses, the essential oil produced sedation and motor impairment assessed by rotarod test. Gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the essential oil revealed the presence of trans-anethole (21.1%), alpha-trans-ocimene (20.6%), limonene (12.4%), alpha-pinene (5.1%), allo ocimene (4.8%), methyl eugenol (2.2%), beta-pinene (0.8%), alpha-terpinolene (0.5%), bornyl acetate (0.5%) and bicyclogermacrene (0.5%) as the main components. The observed anticonvulsant and sedative effects could be related to the presence of monoterpenoids in the essential oil.  相似文献
9.
Lactuca sativa (Lettuce) is a member of Compositae family. In folk medicine of Iran, the seeds of this plant were used for relieving of inflammation and osteodynia. In this study, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanol/petroleum ether (70/30, v/v) extract of the seeds have been evaluated. The extract exhibited a time- and dose-dependent analgesic effect in formalin test and also a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan model of inflammation. The extract had no analgesic effect in tail-flick test up to the highest dose used (6 g/kg). No abnormal behavior and lethality was observed by the extract up to 6 g/kg. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins and simple phenols in the extract.  相似文献
10.
The leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) are reported to have a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-bacterial, fungistatic, virustatic, astringent, eupeptic and anti-hydrotic effects. To determine the hypoglycaemic effect of sage leaves, we investigated the effects of essential oil and methanolic effect of the plant on healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The animals were made diabetic using by streptozotocin (70 mg/kg, i.p.). The methanolic extract (100, 250, 400 and 500 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.042, 0.125, 0.2 and 0.4 ml/kg) were injected intraperitoneally. The control groups were administered water and sunflower oil as vehicles of methanolic extract and essential oil, respectively. Blood samples were obtained from retro-orbital sinus before administration and 1, 3 and 5 h after administrations. The serum glucose was measured by the enzymatic method of glucose oxidase. The results showed that the essential oil of sage did not change serum glucose, while the plant extract significantly decreased serum glucose in diabetic rats in 3 h without effect on insulin releasing from the pancreas but not in healthy rats. Also, the LD50 of the methanolic extract is measured (4000 mg/kg, i.p.). The present data indicate that sage extract has hypoglycaemic effect on diabetic animals and the plant should be considered in future therapeutic researches.  相似文献
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