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1.
Chemistry and pharmacology of the Citrus bioflavonoid hesperidin.   总被引:26,自引:0,他引:26  
Hesperidin, a bioflavonoid, is an abundant and inexpensive by-product of Citrus cultivation. A deficiency of this substance in the diet has been linked with abnormal capillary leakiness as well as pain in the extremities causing aches, weakness and night leg cramps. No signs of toxicity have been observed with the normal intake of hesperidin or related compounds. Both hesperidin and its aglycone hesperetin have been reported to possess a wide range of pharmacological properties. This paper reviews various aspects of hesperidin and its related compounds, including their occurrence, physical and chemical properties, analysis, pharmacokinetics, safety and toxicity and the marketed products available. A special emphasis has been laid on the pharmacological properties and medicinal uses of these compounds.  相似文献
2.
Antihyperglycemic effects of three extracts from Momordica charantia   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
Momordica charantia (L.) (Cucurbitaceae) commonly known as bitter gourd or karela is a medicinal plant, used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus. In this study, various extract powders of the fresh and dried whole fruits were prepared and their blood glucose lowering effect compared by administrating them orally to diabetic rats. The aqueous extract powder of fresh unripe whole fruits at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight was found to reduce fasting blood glucose by 48%, an effect comparable to that of glibenclamide, a known synthetic drug. This extract was tested for nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT and lipid profile. The extract did not show any signs of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity as judged by histological and biochemical parameters. Thus the aqueous extract powder of Momordica charantia, an edible vegetable, appears to be a safe alternative to reducing blood glucose.  相似文献
3.
Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity.  相似文献
4.
An aqueous solution of green tea polyphenols (GTP) was found to inhibit lipid peroxidation (LP), scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. Concentration needed for 50% inhibition of superoxide, hydroxyl and LP radicals were 10, 52.5 and 136 micro g/ml, respectively. Administration of GTP (500 mg/kg b.wt.) to normal rats increased glucose tolerance significantly (P<0.005) at 60 min. GTP was also found to reduce serum glucose level in alloxan diabetic rats significantly at a dose level of 100 mg/kg b.wt. Continued daily administration (15 days) of the extract 50, 100 mg/kg b.wt. produced 29 and 44% reduction in the elevated serum glucose level produced by alloxan administration. Elevated hepatic and renal enzymes produced by alloxan were found to be reduced (P<0.001) by GTP. The serum LP levels which was increased by alloxan and was reduced by significantly (P<0.001) by the administration of 100 mg/kg b.wt. of GTP. Decreased liver glycogen, after alloxan administration showed a significant (P<0.001) increase after GTP treatment. GTP treated group showed increased antioxidant potential as seen from improvements in superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. However catalase, LP and glutathione peroxidase levels were unchanged. These results indicate that alterations in the glucose utilizing system and oxidation status in rats increased by alloxan were partially reversed by the administration of the glutamate pyruvate transaminase.  相似文献
5.
Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: a review   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Since ancient times, plants and herbal preparations have been used as medicine. Research carried out in last few decades has certified several such claims of use of several plants of traditional medicine. Popularity of Momordica charantia (MC) in various systems of traditional medicine for several ailments (antidiabetic, abortifacient, anthelmintic, contraceptive, dysmenorrhea, eczema, emmenagogue, antimalarial, galactagogue, gout, jaundice, abdominal pain, kidney (stone), laxative, leprosy, leucorrhea, piles, pneumonia, psoriasis, purgative, rheumatism, fever and scabies) focused the investigator's attention on this plant. Over 100 studies using modern techniques have authenticated its use in diabetes and its complications (nephropathy, cataract, insulin resistance), as antibacterial as well as antiviral agent (including HIV infection), as anthelmintic and abortifacient. Traditionally it has also been used in treating peptic ulcers, interestingly in a recent experimental studies have exhibited its potential against Helicobacter pylori. Most importantly, the studies have shown its efficacy in various cancers (lymphoid leukemia, lymphoma, choriocarcinoma, melanoma, breast cancer, skin tumor, prostatic cancer, squamous carcinoma of tongue and larynx, human bladder carcinomas and Hodgkin's disease). There are few reports available on clinical use of MC in diabetes and cancer patients that have shown promising results.  相似文献
6.
Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalis flavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M. indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E. officinalis and M. indica. The degradation and elimination of cholesterol was highly enhanced in both the groups. In E. officinalis, the mechanism of hypolipidemic action is by the concerted action of inhibition of synthesis and enhancement of degradation. In the other group (M. indica) inhibition of cholesterogenesis was not encountered but highly significant degradation of cholesterol was noted, which may be the pivotal factor for hypolipidemic activity in this case. Though the mechanisms differ in the two cases, the net effect is to lower lipid levels.  相似文献
7.
This study was designed to determine the anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) using lymphocytes as a model system. Chromium(VI) as potassium dichromate was used to induce oxidative damage. The production of free radicals by chromium and the ability of alcoholic leaf and fruit extracts of seabuckthorn to inhibit the oxidative damage induced by chromium was investigated. Addition of chromium (10 microg/ml) to the cells resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, free radical production and decreased glutathione (reduced) levels. Chromium also caused a significant inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation induced by both lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin A. Alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of seabuckthorn at a concentration of 500 microg/ml were found to inhibit chromium-induced free radical production, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation and restored the anti-oxidant status to that of control cells. In addition, these extracts also were able to arrest the chromium-induced inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. These observations suggest that the alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of seabuckthorn have marked cytoprotective properties, which could be attributed to the anti-oxidant activity.  相似文献
8.
Immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of Piper longum Linn. and piperine   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
Alcoholic extract of the fruits of the plant Piper longum and its component piperine was studied for their immunomodulatory and antitumor activity. Alcoholic extract of the fruits was 100% toxic at a concentration of 500 microg/ml to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells and 250 microg/ml to Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. Piperine was found to be cytotoxic towards DLA and EAC cells at a concentration of 250 microg/ml. Alcoholic extract and piperine was also found to produce cytotoxicity towards L929 cells in culture at a concentration of 100 and 50 microg/ml, respectively. Administration of alcoholic extract of Piper longum (10 mg/dose/animal) as well as piperine (1.14 mg/dose/animal) could inhibit the solid tumor development in mice induced with DLA cells and increase the life span of mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor to 37.3 and 58.8%, respectively. Administration of Piper longum extract and piperine increased the total WBC count to 142.8 and 138.9%, respectively, in Balb/c mice. The number of plaque forming cells also enhanced significantly by the administration of the extract (100.3%) and piperine (71.4%) on 5th day after immunization. Bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase positive cells were also increased by the administration of Piper longum extract and piperine.  相似文献
9.
Passiflora: a review update   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
This review describes the morphology, microscopy, traditional and folklore uses, phyto-constituents, pharmacological reports, clinical applications and toxicological reports of the prominent species of the genus Passiflora. Flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, phenolic compounds and volatile constituents have been reported as the major phyto-constituents of the Passiflora species. A few species of Passiflora have been used for curing various ailments, the most important being Passiflora incarnata Linneaus which possesses significant CNS depressant properties. The studies performed by the authors with the newly isolated benzoflavone (BZF) moiety from P. incarnata have been discussed. In the concluding part, various virgin areas of research on the species of this genus have been highlighted with a view to explore, isolate and identify the medicinally important phyto-constituents which could be utilized to alleviate various diseases affecting the mankind.  相似文献
10.
The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed traditional plant therapies. Two such plants, i.e. Momordica charantia (MC) and Mucuna pruriens (MP), earlier shown to reduce hyperglycaemia, were assessed for their anti hyperglycaemic effect on varying degrees of hyperglycaemia and diabetic complications. Alcohol and aqueous extracts of MC (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) and only an alcohol extract of MP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in a pilot study (plasma glucose >180 mg/dL, 21 days), a chronic study in alloxanized rats (plasma glucose >280mg/dL, 120 days) and streptozotocin (STZ) mice (plasma glucose >400 mg/dL, 60 days). In the pilot study, the maximum antihyperglycaemic effect occurred with an aqueous extract of MC at week 3 and an alcohol extract of MP at week 6 at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day. In chronic alloxanized rats, the selected dose of MC led to a significant fall of 64.33%, 66.96%, 69.7% and 70.53% in plasma glucose levels at 1, 2, 3 and 4 months, respectively. MP showed a decrease of 40.71%, 45.63%, 50.33% and 51.01% at the same time period. In chronic STZ diabetic mice, MC led to a mean reduction of 15.37%, 18.68% and 22.86% in plasma glucose levels on days 40, 50 and 60 of sampling while MP had no significant effect. The alteration in hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content and hepatic glucokinase, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate and phosphofructokinase levels in diabetic mice were partially restored by MC but not by MP. The mechanism of action of MC and MP is discussed.  相似文献
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