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植物组织破碎提取法及闪式提取器的创制与实践   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
本文在对中药提取的原理与实现过程进行深刻剖析的基础上,首次对组织破碎提取法的基本原理、实现过程、闪式提取器的构造及八大优势和应用实践进行了系统论述。用十余年的实践过程证明,闪式提取器集粉碎、浸泡、搅拌、振动等技术优势于一体,使完成一次提取只需数秒至数十秒间,仅为常规回流提取的数十至数百分之一,不但避免了不耐热成分的破坏,且收率高,操作简便,有利环保等。  相似文献
2.
Two pairs of diastereoisomeric flavonolignans, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B, were successfully separated from Silybum marianum by sequential silica gel column chromatography, preparative reversed-phase HPLC, and recrystallization. Complete stereochemical assignments at C-2, C-3, C-7', and C-8' of these flavonolignans have been achieved. On the basis of X-ray crystallographic analysis and optical rotation data, coupled with comprehensive (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data interpretation including COSY, HMQC, and HMBC, the stereochemistry of these diastereoisomers was determined unambiguously as silybin A (4), 2R, 3R, 7'R, 8'R; silybin B (5), 2R, 3R, 7'S, 8'S; isosilybin A (6), 2R, 3R, 7'R, 8'R; and isosilybin B (7), 2R, 3R, 7'S, 8'S.  相似文献
3.
绝经后骨质疏松症是更年期妇女的常见全身性骨代谢疾病,体内雌激素水平下降是其重要病因。激素替代疗法(HRT)虽然在多年的临床实践中有着良好和肯定的疗效,但其在提高妇科肿瘤发生率等方面具有明显的副作用。临床实践已经证明,多种妇科中药方剂、单味中药及中药植物雌激素样活性成分对骨质疏松症有确凿疗效且副作用小。其主要通过作用于靶组织、靶细胞的雌激素受体并进而影响其下游信号传导通路中骨代谢相关调节蛋白和因子的表达情况,达到对骨质疏松症的防治效果。同时,近年来雌激素相关受体的研究也为全面揭示中药及其活性成分抗骨质疏松症的作用机制提供了新的可能角度和途径。  相似文献
4.
美国国立健康研究院(NIH)资助的针灸临床研究内容与特点   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
近年来,美国国立健康研究院(National Institute of Health)对不少针灸临床研究进行了资助。在所资助的60项针灸临床研究中,美国本土的研究有39项,加拿大2项,欧洲7项,中东4项,东南亚8项,中国大陆的复旦大学有2项。有些与手术后或化疗后的病症有关,如幻肢痛,结肠切除术后、化疗后的慢性疲乏、防止放疗后的口腔干燥,减轻手术后的伤口疼,减轻放疗或化疗后的恶心呕吐,减轻手术后的肠梗阻等;有些与疼痛有关,如关节炎、癌症、手术后的疼痛管理等;有与心理精神疾病相关的,如儿童的孤独症,成人的药物滥用等;也有与妇女疾病有关的,如痛经、非周期性乳腺疼痛、生产过程中的生产延迟、生产后会阴修补术引起的疼痛、乳腺炎、妇女更年期以及乳腺癌后的潮热等都纳入了针灸临床研究的范围。与早期只注重于疼痛管理或癌症后的胃肠道反应相比,这些研究项目更深入更广泛。NIH资助的针灸临床研究有以下特点:①规模较小。国内的许多针灸临床往往规模较美国的研究要大。但近年来一些欧洲国家的临床研究参与的病例数就超过了国内一些临床研究项目。②设计严谨。由于NIH的针灸临床研究的研究对象是针灸疗法,在研究的报告中很少提及所用穴位或穴位配合。但大部分的研究都会在纳入或排除标准中注明受试者没有接触过针灸,因为往往在安慰组或假针灸组里,采用假刺或仅仅浅刺,受试者不可能有类似针灸得气的感觉。NIH研究设计的一个优点是随访周期可长达数月甚至数年。③立题新颖。总的来讲,NIH的针灸临床研究项目肯定没有国内的多和广,但它所涉及的领域,有些在国内还是空白。④实用性强。西方人往往是在常规或传统的治疗方法无效的情况下才会想到使用针灸的,在许多疾病如疼痛、癌症、艾滋病、糖尿病或吸毒(药物滥用),会求助于替代医学中的针灸疗法。因而,NIH只会选择那些实用性很强,能切实帮助解决问题的研究进行资助。⑤着重安全。美国NIH对于所有医学治疗的态度可能与国内有所不同,安全性是一个首要的而且是决定性的因素。几乎所有的针灸临床研究都需经过预试验(pilot),设立纳入或排除标准时一定要按照常规医疗的规范来进行,可以避免许多法律上的麻烦。  相似文献
5.
既往研究已经表明,鼠尾草酚(carnoso1)具有一定的抗乳腺癌效应,但其ER亚型特异性调节和介导机制与该物质抑制细胞增殖效应的相关性尚不清楚。该研究利用雌激素受体(ER)阳性乳腺癌T47D细胞观察鼠尾草酚对细胞增殖活性的影响及其雌激素受体α,卢亚型特异性介导和调节机制。以ERα和ERβ特异性拮抗剂MPP,PHTPP为工具药,采用MTT细胞增殖实验观察鼠尾草酚对T47D细胞增殖的影响;检测T47D细胞增殖周期的变化。利用Western blot方法检测鼠尾草酚对T47D细胞ERα和ERβ表达情况的影响。研究发现,1×10-51×10-7mol·L-1鼠尾草酚能够显著抑制T47D细胞增殖,该抑制作用可被ERα拮抗剂MPP增强、被ERβ拮抗剂PHTPP减弱;1×10-1,1×10-6mol·L-1鼠尾草酚可使T47D细胞增殖指数显著下降。Western blot检测结果显示1×10-5,1×10-6mol·L-1鼠尾草酚可使T47D细胞ERα和ERβ蛋白表达显著增加,并可明显提高ERα/ERβ。结果表明鼠尾草酚具有抑制ER阳性乳腺癌细胞增殖的作用,其效应是通过靶细胞雌激素受体,特别是ERβ途径实现的;同时,鼠尾草酚对靶细胞雌激素受体ERα和ERβ亚型的表达及其比例具有调节功能。  相似文献
6.
《中草药(英文版)》2012,(4):340-344
Objective To optimize the extraction technology used for extracting active saponins from the roots,fibrous roots,basal part of stems,root verrucae,fruits,flowers,stems,and leaves of Panax notoginseng based on the contents of ginsengsides Rg1,Rb1,and notoginsengside R1 as evaluation indexes.Methods Different parts of P.notoginseng were extracted by smashing tissue extraction(STE),ultrasound extraction,and reflux extraction.The contents of ginsengsides Rg1,Rb1,and notoginsengside R1 in 24 kinds of extracts were determined by HPLC-UV.Hypersil C18 column(200 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μm) and acetonitrile-warter(20:80 for 30 min→45:55 for 18 min→70:30 for 2 min→80:20 for 10 min→100:0) were used;UV detector was set at 203 nm;The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min.Results STE was the most efficient technology with the highest yield of active saponins among the three tested extraction technologies.Conclusion STE is a fast,effective,and economical method to extract the active saponins from different parts of P.notoginseng.It could significantly shorten the extraction time and simplify the determination of the pre-processing work on identifying P.notoginseng.Such quick and effective extraction provides a powerful tool for analyzing P.notoginseng in the future.  相似文献
7.
Objective To optimize the extraction technology of perilla seeds oil from the oil cake of perilla seeds(OCPS)by using the contents of active fatty acids as evaluation standard.Methods The fatty acids were extracted from OCPS,the residue of perilla seeds after cold-press,by smashing tissue extraction(STE),the new technology selected through comparing with classical leaching extraction(LE),Soxhlet extraction(SE),ultrasonic extraction(UE),and supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction(SFE).For optimized condition of STE,orthogonal test was designed and completed.The contents of five fatty acids in extracted oil and OCPS were determined by GC.Results The optimized extraction parameters were smashing for 1.5 min under extraction power of 150 W and 1:6 of the material/solvent ratio.The contents of five fatty acids in the oils extracted by five techniques from OCPS and determined by GC were as follows:α-linolenic acid(41.12%-51.81%),linoleic acid(15.38%-16.43%),oleic acid (18.93%-27.28%),stearic acid(2.56%-4.01%),and palmitic acid(7.38%-10.77%).Conclusion The results show that STE is the most efficient technology with the highest yield(LE:0.57%;SE:1.03%;UE:0.61%;SFE:0.80%;STE: 1.17%)and shortest time(LE:720 min;SE:360 min;UE:30 min;SFE:120 min;STE:1.5 min)among five tested extraction technologies.It is first reported using STE to extract herbal oil enriched with active fatty acids.  相似文献
8.

Ethnopharmacological relevance

The herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) and its modifications have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for about one hundred years to alleviate pain and inflammation.

Aim

To investigate the effects of HLXL on complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced multiple-joint arthritis in rats.

Materials and methods

Male Lewis rats, 190–210 g, were immunized subcutaneously at the base of the tail with 200 μl of heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mineral oil (5 mg/ml). HLXL (2.30 and 4.60 g/kg) or vehicle control (n = 8 per group) was administered orally (i.g.) once a day between days 16 and 25 post-CFA injection. The rats were observed for signs of arthritis with arthritic changes (erythema, edema, induration) being scored on a scale of 0–4 of increasing severity using a standard scoring system. The maximum arthritis score per rat was 16. A plethysmometer was used to measure edema volume in each paw. Adverse effects of HLXL were monitored by closely observing the animals for unusual behavioral changes. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in local tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on day 25 post-CFA.

Results

HLXL significantly decreased arthritis scores between days 23–25 in the 2.30 g/kg group and 21–25 in the 4.60 g/kg group (p < 0.05). It reduced paw edema on days 22 and 24 in the 2.30 g/kg group and on days 20, 22 and 24 in the 4.60 g/kg group compared to control (p < 0.05). Local tissue TNF-α and IL-1β levels on day 25 post-CFA injection were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in rats treated with HLXL than in control rats. No observable adverse effects were found.

Conclusion

The data suggest that HLXL produces significant anti-arthritic effects that may be mediated by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines, and it appears to be safe.  相似文献
9.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (CTHD),also known as Zhongcaoyao,was founded in January 1970. There are 40 volumes,near 500 issues including supplemental to 2009 have been published. In 1992 it was awarded national core publication published in Chinese and kept the title to date via four times reevaluations at 1996,2000, 2004,and 2008. As one of  相似文献
10.
Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. belongs to the family Rutaceae in the genus Poncirus. Its fruits are widely used to alleviate symptoms of various disorders. The mature fruit (MF) possesses anticancer and antiinflammatory activities. Extracts of the dried, immature fruit, Poncirus fructus (PF) are widely used as a traditional medicine for ameliorating symptoms of digestive dysfunction in East Asia. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of MF and PF extracts on cancer, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders have been extensively studied in the past decade. This review summarizes recent findings on the anticancer and antiinflammatory effects of MF and the prokinetic effects of PF. Although the therapeutic effects of MF and PF have been clearly elucidated, in‐depth further clinical studies are still required to completely verify the clinical efficacy and safety of the fruits of P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.  相似文献
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