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Abstract With application of molecular biology techniques, there has been rapid progress in understanding how many drugs and micronutrients (e.g., vitamins) are transferred across the choroid plexus (CP), the main transport locus of the blood–cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, and the renal tubular epithelial cells. In many cases, these molecules are transported by separate, specific carriers or receptors on the apical and/or basal side of the CP or renal epithelial cells. This commentary focuses on four micronutrient transport systems in CP (ascorbic acid, folate, inositol, and riboflavin), all of which have been recently cloned, expressed and for which knockout mice models were developed and transporter localization studies performed. Also reviewed is the recently cloned uric acid transport system in human kidney in which there exists a human “knockout” model. The implications of these transport systems for drug therapy of central nervous system and renal disorders are discussed, especially with regard to methods to circumvent the blood–brain and blood–CSF barriers to deliver drugs to the brain.  相似文献
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Purpose To examine the mechanisms of the alteration of serum uric acid level by angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), the effects of ARBs on renal uric acid transporters, including OAT1, OAT3, OAT4, and MRP4, were evaluated. Materials and Methods Uptakes of uric acid by OAT1-expressing Flp293 cells, by Xenopus oocytes expressing OAT3 or OAT4, and by membrane vesicles from Sf9 cells expressing MRP4 were evaluated in the presence or absence of ARBs. Results All ARBs inhibited uptake of uric acid or estrone-3-sulfate by OAT1, OAT3 and OAT4 in concentration dependent manners. Among them, the IC50 values of valsartan, olmesartan and pratosartan for OAT3 were comparable to clinically observed unbound maximum plasma concentration of ARBs. Candesartan, losartan, and telmisartan inhibited ATP-dependent uptake of uric acid by MRP4 at 10 μM. The IC50 value of losartan for MRP4 was comparable to the estimated kidney tissue concentration of losartan. No ARBs showed trans-stimulatory effects on the uptake of estrone-3-sulfate by OAT4. Conclusion Valsartan, olmesartan, and pratosartan could inhibit the OAT3-mediated uric acid secretion in clinical situations. Furthermore losartan could inhibit ATP-dependent uric acid secretion by MRP4. These effects may explain partially the alteration of serum uric acid level by ARBs.  相似文献
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摘 要 目的: 介绍中药及其提取物对痛风治疗的研究概况及前景。方法: 以国内外文献为依据,对中药提取物及其活性成分针对痛风治疗的几个重要靶点黄嘌呤氧化酶、脂氧化酶、环氧化酶和尿酸转运蛋白活性的抑制作用进行综述。结果: 中药含有丰富的黄嘌呤氧化酶、脂氧化酶、环氧化酶和尿酸转运蛋白活性抑制剂。结论:多种中药治疗痛风药理活性显著,机制清楚,具有良好的研究开发价值。  相似文献
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