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The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is a unique phenomenon of solid tumors related to their anatomical and pathophysiological differences from normal tissues. For example, angiogenesis leads to high vascular density in solid tumors, large gaps exist between endothelial cells in tumor blood vessels, and tumor tissues show selective extravasation and retention of macromolecular drugs. This EPR effect served as a basis for development of macromolecular anticancer therapy. We demonstrated methods to enhance this effect artificially in clinical settings. Of great importance was increasing systolic blood pressure via slow angiotensin II infusion. Another strategy involved utilization of NO-releasing agents such as topical nitroglycerin, which releases nitrite. Nitrite is converted to NO more selectively in the tumor tissues, which leads to a significantly increased EPR effect and enhanced antitumor drug effects as well. This review discusses molecular mechanisms of factors related to the EPR effect, the unique anatomy of tumor vessels, limitations and techniques to avoid such limitations, augmenting tumor drug delivery, and experimental and clinical findings.  相似文献
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Rare earth elements (REE) are possible performance enhancers in animal production, but little is known about their effects on ruminants. Therefore a feeding trial was conducted with 40 fattening bulls who received 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg REE-citrate/kg dry matter (DM), containing 34.30% La, 58.09% Ce and 7.61% other REE. DM intake was measured daily and live weight weekly. Ex vivo ConcanavalinA (ConA)-stimulated cell proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was tested by MTT and alamar blue (AB) assay. Serum was analysed for clinical chemical parameters, ion (Mg, Ca and P) and REE concentrations. The effects of LaCl3, CeCl3, NdCl3 and YCl3 on ConA-stimulated proliferation of PBMC were tested in vitro, using MTT and AB assay.REE-citrate supplementation did affect DM intake, but not live weight gain, clinical chemical parameters, and ion concentrations significantly. In REE-300 group ex vivo proliferation of PBMC was significantly increased. In vitro ConA-stimulated proliferation decreased with rising REE-chloride concentrations. At least at the highest tested concentration (approximately 290 μM) the inhibition reached significance. Proliferation of non-stimulated PBMC was not affected dose-dependently.REE affect the proliferation of PBMC, thus an effect on the bovine immune system is possible. However, the great differences in effective doses in vitro and ex vivo (serum REE concentrations) might explain the different results from the experiments.  相似文献
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ReProComet: a new in vitro method to assess DNA damage in mammalian sperm.   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The increasing request of chemical safety assessment demands for the validation of alternative methods to reduce the resort to animal experimentation. Methods that evaluate reproductive toxicity are among those requiring the largest use of animals. Presently, no validated in vitro alternative exists for the assessment of reproductive toxicity. Mammalian sperm are sensitive targets of DNA-reactive chemicals, which form premutagenic adducts. Here, we propose a new method based on comet assay to detect DNA damage induced by potential germ cell mutagens in bull sperm available from assisted reproduction practices. In somatic cells, chemical-induced adducts can be revealed by comet assay that detects DNA breaks produced during adduct repair. Mature sperm, however, are devoid of repair enzymes, and adducts are processed only after fertilization. For this reason, comet assay is not sensitive to detect DNA lesions induced in sperm by most chemicals. To overcome such limitation, we developed a modified comet assay based on the addition of a protein extract from HeLa cells to agarose-embedded sperm on microscopic slides. To test the method, sperm were treated in vitro with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or melphalan (MLP) and comet assay was conducted both with and without protein supplementation. No effect of MMS or MLP was detected without protein supplementation; on the contrary, a clear-cut dose-dependent effect was measured after addition of the cell extract. These results represent a proof of concept of a novel in vitro mutagenicity test on sperm that could offer a promising approach to complement previously validated in vivo germ cell genotoxicity assays.  相似文献
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A new method for the quantification of the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of compounds in aqueous solutions is described using an amperometric NO sensor. After correction for the spontaneous degradation of NO, second–order rate kinetics of the scavenging reaction are observe. The rate constant for hemoglobin found with this method is comparable with that found with an established spectrophotometric method. To demonstrate the capability of the method, several sulfur–containing compounds were tested (GSH, GSSG, S–methyl glutathione, N–acetyl cysteine, lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid). Of these compounds, only those that contained a thiol group displayed a considerable NO scavenging activity.  相似文献
5.
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a human carcinogen that results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a variety of DNA lesions leading to cell death. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol present in green tea, possesses potent antioxidative activity capable of protecting normal cells from various stimuli-induced oxidative stress and cell death. Here we demonstrated that co-treatment with EGCG protected human normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Cr(VI) induces apoptosis as the primary mode of cell death. Co-treatment of BEAS-2B cells with EGCG dose-dependently suppressed Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis. Fluorescence microscopic analyses and quantitative measurement revealed that EGCG significantly decreased intracellular levels of ROS induced by Cr(VI) exposure. Using a well-established K+/SDS precipitation assay, we further showed that EGCG was able to dose-dependently reduce DNA-protein cross-links (DPC), lesions that could be partially attributed to Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress. Finally, analyses of Affymetrix microarray containing 28,869 well-annotated genes revealed that, among the 3412 genes changed more than 1.5-fold by Cr(VI) treatment, changes of 2404 genes (70%) were inhibited by pretreatment of EGCG. Real-time PCR confirmed the induction of 3 genes involved in cell death and apoptosis by Cr(VI), which was eliminated by EGCG. In contrast, Cr(VI) reduced the expression of 3 genes related to cellular defense, and this reduction was inhibited by EGCG. Our results indicate that EGCG protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity presumably by scavenging ROS and modulating a subset of genes. EGCG, therefore, might serve as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI) carcinogenesis.  相似文献
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Cadmium has been widely used in industry and is known to be carcinogenic to humans. Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to cadmium increases the incidence of cancer, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis are unclear. The main aim of this study was to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and the signal transduction pathways involved. Chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to cadmium induced cell transformation, as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and clonogenic assays. Chronic cadmium treatment also increased the potential of these cells to invade and migrate. Injection of cadmium-stimulated cells into nude mice resulted in the formation of tumors. In contrast, the cadmium-mediated increases in colony formation, cell invasion and migration were prevented by transfection with catalase, superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), or SOD2. In particular, chronic cadmium exposure led to activation of signaling cascades involving PI3K, AKT, GSK-3β, and β-catenin and transfection with each of the above antioxidant enzymes markedly inhibited cadmium-mediated activation of these signaling proteins. Inhibitors specific for AKT or β-catenin almost completely suppressed the cadmium-mediated increase in total and active β-catenin proteins and colony formation. Moreover, there was a marked induction of AKT, GSK-3β, β-catenin, and carcinogenic markers in tumor tissues formed in mice after injection with cadmium-stimulated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest a direct involvement of ROS in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis and implicate a role of AKT/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling in this process.  相似文献
7.
目的:建立快速、灵敏的恩诺沙星残留酶联免疫检测方法(ELISA)。方法:采用混合酸酐法,将恩诺沙星与牛血清白蛋白和卵清蛋白分别合成免疫抗原(Enrofloxac in-BSA)和包被抗原(Enrofloxac in-OVA)。通过背部多点免疫法免疫日本大白耳兔,制备抗恩诺沙星的特异性抗血清。结果:利用所获得的特异性抗血清,建立的恩诺沙星ELISA检测方法,其线性范围为5 ng.mL-1~2.5μg.mL-1(R2=0.9935),且与HPLC方法具有良好的相关性(R2=0.9892,n=9)。牛奶、大鼠血浆和尿液中的加样回收率分别为98.4%~105.8%,91.7%~101.2%,97.0%~110.3%。运用所建立的方法,对大鼠体内血浆及药品中恩诺沙星的含量进行了测定。结论:本研究所建立的检测恩诺沙星的ELISA方法具有样品前处理简单,灵敏度高及分析速度快等优点,适合用于恩诺沙星的体内分析及动物性食品中恩诺沙星的残留分析。  相似文献
8.
We examined whether acetaminophen could alter renal oxidative stress induced by arsenic; also whether withdrawal of acetaminophen treatment can increase susceptibility of kidney to arsenic toxicity. Acetaminophen (400 and 1600 mg/kg) was co-administered orally to rats for 3 days after preexposure to arsenic (25 ppm) for 28 days (Phase-I) and thereafter, acetaminophen was withdrawn, but arsenic exposure was continued for another 28 days (Phase-II). Acetaminophen enhanced arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion and ROS production and further decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. Increased peroxidation did not alter kidney weight, but increased serum urea nitrogen and creatinine. Arsenic did not alter basal, iNOS-mediated NO production or iNOS expression. Arsenic decreased cNOS-mediated NO release and eNOS expression in Phase-II. Acetaminophen increased their expressions and NO production in Phase-I. In Phase-II, arsenic-mediated effects on NO remained mostly unaffected with acetaminophen. Results reveal that acetaminophen enhanced the risk of arsenic-mediated oxidative stress in kidney. Discontinuation of acetaminophen administration also increased the susceptibility of kidney to nephrotoxic effect of arsenic. It appeared ROS were primarily responsible for oxidative stress in both the phases. NO may have a minor role in Phase-I, but does not contribute to redox signaling mechanism in Phase-II.  相似文献
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10.
Accumulating evidence indicates that post-translational protein modifications by nitric oxide and its derived species are critical effectors of redox signaling in cells. These protein modifications are most likely controlled by intracellular reductants. Among them, the importance of the 12 kDa dithiol protein thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) has been increasingly recognized. However, the effects of TRX-1 in cells exposed to exogenous nitrosothiols remain little understood. We investigated the levels of intracellular nitrosothiols and survival signaling in HeLa cells over-expressing TRX-1 and exposed to S-nitrosoglutahione (GSNO). A role for TRX-1 expression on GSNO catabolism and cell viability was demonstrated by the concentration-dependent effects of GSNO on decreasing TRX-1 expression, activation of caspase-3, and increasing cell death. The over-expression of TRX-1 in HeLa cells partially attenuated caspase-3 activation and enhanced cell viability upon GSNO treatment. This was correlated with reduction of intracellular levels of nitrosothiols and increasing levels of nitrite and nitrotyrosine. The involvement of ERK, p38 and JNK pathways were investigated in parental cells treated with GSNO. Activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases was shown to be critical for survival signaling. In cells over-expressing TRX-1, basal phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 MAP kinases were higher and further increased after GSNO treatment. These results indicate that the enhanced cell viability promoted by TRX-1 correlates with its capacity to regulate the levels of intracellular nitrosothiols and to up-regulate the survival signaling pathway mediated by the ERK1/2 MAP kinases.  相似文献
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