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1.
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a lack of adequate data on pediatric eye and vision disorders in Canada, particularly in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. In the present study, we estimate the prevalence of eye and vision disorders among young children who participated in a vision screening program in the St. John's, Newfoundland, metropolitan region. METHODS: In daycare settings, 946 children (mean age 4.2 years) were screened with the latest tests of optics and functional vision. Those with suspected vision disorders were referred to an optometrist for a complete eye examination. From the results of these examinations, prevalence rates were estimated for several categories of vision disorders. RESULTS: Overall, we estimate that 14.0% of the children possessed significant vision disorders, the most prevalent of which were hyperopia, amblyopia, and strabismus (4.8%, 4.7%, and 4.3%, respectively). Myopia and anisometropia, on the other hand, were relatively rare (1.1% and 1.4%, respectively). In general, prevalence estimates are within the range of existing estimates from other developed nations. INTERPRETATION: Although the prevalence rates reported here must be interpreted cautiously because of methodological limitations, it appears that children in the present study do not possess an abnormally high prevalence of visual dysfunction. Nevertheless, because an estimated 14.0% of children tested had treatable vision disorders, early screening is clearly warranted in Newfoundland and Labrador.  相似文献
2.
上海市区学龄前儿童屈光异常852例分析   总被引:5,自引:2,他引:3  
目的:了解上海市区部分学龄前儿童屈光的异常状态及视力矫正情况。方法:视力异常学龄前儿童852例(1615眼)作散瞳验光检查,并对检查结果进行分析探讨。结果:单纯近视443眼(27.43%),复性近视散光255眼(15.79%),单纯远视287眼(17.77%),复性远视散光347眼(21.49%),混合性散光283眼(17.52%)。随着年龄的增长,就诊的学龄前近视患者逐渐增多;父母近视对学龄前儿童近视发生率的增加有影响;屈光不正大都以轻中度为主(82.43%),视力大多(80.40%)是可以矫正的。结论:学龄前儿童近视和近视散光的发生率有明显增加的趋势。  相似文献
3.
AIMS—High hyperopia constitutes the majority of refractive errors in large scale visual screening at preschool ages. The authors aimed to assess the validity of the Retinomax hand held refractor to detect high hyperopia in a refractive screening performed without cycloplegia and carried out on children aged 9-36 months. They considered +1.5 D of manifest hyperopia to be the threshold value and abnormal absolute hyperopia to be above +3.5 D.
METHODS—Of the 897 children screened without cycloplegia, 220 were refracted with cycloplegia. The validity of several thresholds of manifest hyperopia was estimated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves using cycloplegic measures as a reference. The reproducibility of Retinomax measurements was assessed. Normal and quick mode measurements were compared using the Wilcoxon test.
RESULTS—The manifest threshold of +1.5 D offered the best combination of sensitivity (70.2%), specificity (94.6%), positive predictive value (78.6%), and negative predictive value (91.9%) to disclose abnormal absolute hyperopia. A good agreement was obtained between the various measurements using Retinomax on the same subject. In the results of this survey, there is no evidence that accommodation is minimised in the normal mode of measurement compared with the quick mode.
CONCLUSION—The Retinomax hand held infrared autorefractor is a suitable instrument to diagnose abnormal hyperopia (manifest hyperopia >+1.5 D) in non-cycloplegic refractive screening at preschool ages. It is suggested as the quick mode of measurement as it is more feasible in children (success rate 98.5%).

Keywords: non-cycloplegic refractive screening; hyperopia; hand held infrared automated refractor; Retinomax  相似文献
4.
散瞳状态下立即充分矫正治疗儿童远视性弱视   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:1  
目的:探讨儿童远视性弱视阿托品(atropine)散瞳2wk后复验的必要性及散瞳状态下确定光度,立即配戴充分矫正眼镜的优越性。方法:102例(186眼)儿童远视性弱性患者,随机分成2组。Ⅰ组:atropine散瞳状态下立即充分矫正组54例(96眼);Ⅱ组:传统方法atropine散瞳2wk后瞳孔恢复后复验配镜组48例(90眼)。应用综合疗法治疗,随访3a,观察2组远视性弱视治疗情况。结果:I组治疗弱视总有效率88.5%,Ⅱ组总有效率87.8%,2组无显著差异(P >0.05)。而达到基本治愈所需时间有非常显著差异(P <0.01),Ⅰ组治疗时间短。结论:对于儿童远视性弱视可试行atropine散瞳状态下确定屈光度,立即配戴充分矫正眼镜,可缩短弱视治疗时间,提高疗效。  相似文献
5.
Normal ocular development in young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize normal ocular development in infant monkeys and to establish both qualitative and quantitative relationships between human and monkey refractive development. METHODS: The subjects were 214 normal rhesus monkeys. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 204 monkeys at about 3 weeks of age and longitudinal data were obtained from 10 representative animals beginning at about 3 weeks of age for a period of up to 5 years. Ocular development was characterized via refractive status, corneal power, crystalline lens parameters, and the eye's axial dimensions, which were determined by retinoscopy, keratometry, phakometry and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively. RESULTS: From birth to about 5 years of age, the growth curves for refractive error and most ocular components (excluding lens thickness and equivalent lens index) followed exponential trajectories and were highly coordinated between the two eyes. However, overall ocular growth was not a simple process of increasing the scale of each ocular component in a proportional manner. Instead the rates and relative amounts of change varied within and between ocular structures. CONCLUSION: The configuration and contribution of the major ocular components in infant and adolescent monkey eyes are qualitatively and quantitatively very comparable to those in human eyes and their development proceeds in a similar manner in both species. As a consequence, in both species the adolescent eye is not simply a scaled version of the infant eye.  相似文献
6.
Wang H  Yin ZQ  Chen L  Ren Q 《中华眼科杂志》2007,43(2):112-117
目的评价准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术(LASIK)矫治儿童高度远视性屈光参差的安全性、有效性、可预测性和稳定性,并探讨其对术后弱视治疗效果的影响。方法采用前瞻性自身对照法观察42例高度远视屈光参差性弱视儿童病例,年龄范围6~14岁。使用SVS Apex plus准分子激光系统(其中联合L型mask盘矫正单纯远视9例,联合P型mask盘矫正远视合并散光12例)及鹰视世纪波准分子激光系统(21例),在局部麻醉或全身麻醉下对患儿高度远视眼行LASIK,术后进行弱视治疗。术后对视力、屈光度和双眼视功能进行分析。随访时间6~24个月。结果矫治屈光度数为+3.00-+7.50D,术后2年66.6%术眼残余屈光度数在预计矫正屈光度数±1.00D的范围内。术后随访发现睫状肌麻痹下等值球镜屈光度数波动范围为+0.99~+0.67D。最佳戴镜矫正远、近视力均不丢失。术后2年平均最佳戴镜矫正远视力为0.40±0.28,平均最佳戴镜矫正近视力为0.78±0.39。经规范弱视治疗,双眼不等像、同时视、融合、立体视及隐斜均得以改善。结论对患有高度远视性屈光参差且不能耐受戴镜矫治的儿童,采用LASIK矫治屈光参差是安全、有效的,具有良好的可预测性和稳定性,且这一手术有助于提高高度远视屈光参差性弱视的治愈率。  相似文献
7.
远视性屈光不正儿童黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的 观察远视性屈光不正儿童黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度.方法 临床病例对照研究.对2013年1~8月在莒县人民医院眼科就诊的92例(184只眼)远视性屈光不正组(远视组)儿童,同龄段48名(96只眼)视力正常(正常组)儿童,将其双眼黄斑中心凹水平和垂直方位进行频域光学相干断层扫描图像增强技术(enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography EDI-OCT)检查,测量黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度.两组间黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度值按眼别、性别、远视程度进行统计学分析,并应用直线相关分析法分析远视组黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度值与性别、年龄、logMAR BCVA、等效球镜、平均黄斑中心凹处视网膜厚度值之间的相关性.结果 远视组儿童黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度比正常组儿童厚,差异有统计学意义(t =-6.097,P<0.05).远视组按右左眼别,男女性别统计黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度均比正常组厚,差异有统计学意义(t =3.638,5.184,4.647,5.235,P<0.05).远视组按男女性别的右左眼黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度均比正常组厚,差异有统计学意义(t =2.676、4.098,3.601、3.592,P<0.05).轻、中、重度远视组黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度亦均比正常组厚,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).轻、中、重三组组间黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度值差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).远视儿童弱视组、非弱视组黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度均比正常组厚,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组之间黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).远视组性别、年龄、logMAR BCVA、等效球镜、黄斑中心凹处视网膜厚度与黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度之间差异无统计学意义(r=0.143、-0.044、0.189、0.199、0.018,P>0.05).结论 EDI-OCT检测到远视性屈光不正儿童的黄斑中心凹下脉络膜厚度比同年龄段正常视力儿童厚,其机制有待进一步探讨.  相似文献
8.
远视眼角膜厚度的测量及准分子手术安全性的分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的:应用角膜测厚仪测量和分析远视眼的中央角膜厚度,探讨LASIK治疗远视眼的安全性。方法:回顾性统计分析102例204眼远视眼的中央角膜厚度,并与激光切削深度做对比。结果:在204眼远视眼中,中央角膜厚度449~640(平均547.3±33.4)μm。右眼中央角膜厚度458~639(平均547.1±33.2)μm;左眼中央角膜厚度449~640(平均547.6±33.8)μm,左右眼中央角膜厚度统计学分析没有显著性差异。男性远视眼中央角膜厚度493~640(552.3±29.9)μm,女性远视眼中央角膜厚度449~625(平均543.3±35.7)μm,男性远视眼中央角膜厚度略大于女性,统计学分析没有显著性差异。结论:204眼远视眼的中央角膜厚度449~640(平均547.3±33.4)μm,与近视眼和正视眼中央角膜厚度相近似。远视眼中央角膜厚度左右眼间无明显差异。本文统计男性中央角膜厚度略大于女性,差异无显著性。远视眼角膜进行LASIK手术是安全的。  相似文献
9.
美多丽与阿托品对青少年远视散瞳验光结果的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的:比较美多丽眼液与阿托品眼膏对青少年远视散瞳验光结果的影响。方法:用美多丽眼液与阿托品眼膏对116眼(8~16岁)青少年远视患儿进行散瞳视网膜检影验光。结果:远视球镜度数116眼两次验光结果相同或相差≤0.50D者94眼,相差0.75D以上22眼,远视球镜度数符合率为81.0%,52眼复性远视柱镜度数符合率为92.2%,散光轴向符合率为84.6%,28眼远视年龄在8~12岁者,两次验光结果验光度数相同和相差≤0.50D,散光轴向≤5°者7眼,符合率25.0%,88眼年龄在12~16岁,符合率97.7%,≥0.75D者两例均合并有内斜视,本组两种不同散瞳剂散瞳验光结果对比远视球镜或复性远视柱镜度数相差0.75D以上者均为美多丽散瞳年龄≤12岁者或有斜视者,低于阿托品散瞳验光度数。结论:年龄≤12岁的远视和初步诊断远视合并斜视患者,需用阿托品眼膏散瞳视网膜检影验光,对于年龄大于12岁的青少年远视无斜视者可以用美多丽眼液代替阿托品眼膏散瞳视网膜检影验光。  相似文献
10.
Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between refractive errors and high-order aberrations in infant rhesus monkeys. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations measured with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor between normal monkeys and monkeys with vision-induced refractive errors. Shortly after birth, both normal monkeys and treated monkeys reared with optically induced defocus or form deprivation showed a decrease in the magnitude of high-order aberrations with age. However, the decrease in aberrations was typically smaller in the treated animals. Thus, at the end of the lens-rearing period, higher than normal amounts of aberrations were observed in treated eyes, both hyperopic and myopic eyes and treated eyes that developed astigmatism, but not spherical ametropias. The total RMS wavefront error increased with the degree of spherical refractive error, but was not correlated with the degree of astigmatism. Both myopic and hyperopic treated eyes showed elevated amounts of coma and trefoil and the degree of trefoil increased with the degree of spherical ametropia. Myopic eyes also exhibited a much higher prevalence of positive spherical aberration than normal or treated hyperopic eyes. Following the onset of unrestricted vision, the amount of high-order aberrations decreased in the treated monkeys that also recovered from the experimentally induced refractive errors. Our results demonstrate that high-order aberrations are influenced by visual experience in young primates and that the increase in high-order aberrations in our treated monkeys appears to be an optical byproduct of the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth that underlie changes in refractive error. The results from our study suggest that the higher amounts of wave aberrations observed in ametropic humans are likely to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of abnormal refractive development.  相似文献
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