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1.
癌症患者生存质量分析   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:18  
目的 研究癌症患者生存质量的特点。方法 抽取哈尔滨市癌症患者 35 2人 ,其中普通住院癌症患者1 84人 ,癌症康复协会癌症患者 1 6 8人 ,采用世界卫生组织生存质量评定量表 (WorldHealthOrganizationQualityofLifewith 1 0 0 question ,WHOQOL 1 0 0 )进行评估。 结果 与常模相比 ,癌症病人在各个领域的生存质量都很低下 ;普通住院癌症患者与癌症康复协会患者生存质量比较的结果表明 :普通住院癌症患者与癌症康复协会患者的总生存质量与健康状况及生理领域、心理领域、独立性领域、环境领域差异有统计学意义 (P <0 0 5 ) ,社会关系领域和精神支柱领域差异无统计学意义 (P >0 0 5 )。结论 癌症患者的生存质量普遍低于正常人 ;普通住院癌症患者的生存质量除社会关系领域和精神支柱领域外明显低于癌症康复协会患者的生存质量 ;不同癌症种类的患者生存质量没有不同 ;不同年龄、性别、职业、不同婚姻状况及经济状况的患者在某些方面生存质量存在不同。  相似文献
2.
基于世界卫生组织(WHO)成员国的经验,本文探讨了人口老龄化进程中医疗卫生支出的基本特征和一般规律。研究表明:世界各国医疗卫生水平存在极大的不平衡。随着人口老龄化的加深,医疗卫生支出中政府支出比例趋于上升,而私人卫生支出比例趋于下降。医疗卫生支出占GDP的比例逐步提高,而政府卫生支出占政府总支出比例也趋于提高,人口老龄化进程中政府在医疗卫生支出中将承担更重要的责任。而且,在政府卫生支出中,医疗保障支出比例趋于提高,并将成为政府卫生支出越来越重要的部分。当一国进入老龄化社会后,医疗卫生支出速度将会递增,经济发展和政府财政将承受越来越重的医疗支出负担。"未富先老"的中国面临着医疗卫生支出急剧增长的严峻挑战,这应该成为医疗卫生体制改革关注的议题。  相似文献
3.
乳腺癌患者WHOQOL-100调查分析   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:8  
目的:研究乳腺癌患者生存质量的特点。方法:抽取哈尔滨市乳腺癌病人119例,其中普通住院乳腺癌患者52例,癌症康复协会乳腺癌患者67例,采用世界卫生组织生存质量评定量表(WHOQOL-100)进行调查评估。结果:与常模相比,乳腺癌病人除环境1个领域,自尊、日常活动能力、社会安全保障、获取新信息、环境条件等5个方面无统计学意义(P>0 .05)外,其余5个领域、19个方面及总的生存质量都很低下;普通住院乳腺癌患者与癌症康复协会乳腺癌患者生存质量比较的结果表明,普通住院乳腺癌患者与癌症康复协会乳腺癌患者的总的生存质量与健康状况及生理领域、心理领域、独立性领域、环境领域有统计学意义(P<0. 05,P<0.001),社会关系领域和精神支柱领域无统计学意义(P>0. 05)。结论:乳腺癌病人的生存质量普遍低于正常人;普通住院乳腺癌患者的生存质量除社会关系领域和精神支柱领域外明显低于癌症康复协会乳腺癌患者的生存质量;不同年龄、职业、不同婚烟状况及经济状况的乳腺癌患者在某些方面生存质量存在不同。  相似文献
4.
不同时期世界卫生组织主要政策及其变化趋势研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
世界卫生组织政策是一种在世界范围内的公共政策,包括法律、公约、条例以及指南等多种形式。本文概括了六个时期世界卫生组织政策的环境和重要内容,并提出世界卫生组织政策从援助到合作,从治愈疾病到安全和发展的两个重要变化。文章还探讨了世界卫生组织政策变化趋势及其对我国卫生政策发展和国际卫生合作方面的启示,对系统了解国际卫生政策的发展历程、地位作用,加强我国的国际卫生合作具有一定参考价值。  相似文献
5.
Exploring the international arena of global public health surveillance   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Threats posed by new, emerging or re-emerging communicable diseases are taking a global dimension, to which the World Health Organization (WHO) Secretariat has been responding with determination since 1995. Key to the global strategy for tackling epidemics across borders is the concept of global public health surveillance, which has been expanded and formalized by WHO and its technical partners through a number of recently developed instruments and initiatives. The adoption by the 58th World Health Assembly of the revised (2005) International Health Regulations provides the legal framework for mandating countries to link and coordinate their action through a universal network of surveillance networks. While novel environmental threats and outbreak-prone diseases have been increasingly identified during the past three decades, new processes of influence have appeared more recently, driven by the real or perceived threats of bio-terrorism and disruption of the global economy. Accordingly, the global surveillance agenda is being endorsed, and to some extent seized upon by new actors representing security and economic interests. This paper explores external factors influencing political commitment to comply with international health regulations and it illustrates adverse effects generated by: perceived threats to sovereignty, blurred international health agendas, lack of internationally recognized codes of conduct for outbreak investigations, and erosion of the impartiality and independence of international agencies. A companion paper (published in this issue) addresses the intrinsic difficulties that health systems of low-income countries are facing when submitted to the ever-increasing pressure to upgrade their public health surveillance capacity.  相似文献
6.
An investigation correlating scanning electron microscopic observations with sperm penetration tests carried out on cervical mucus under the influence of low-dose continuous progestogen (Norgestrienone) is presented. The results demonstrate that such type of contraceptive is involved in drastic alterations of mid-cycle cervical mucus at the macromolecular level. The meshwork which constitutes the infrastructure of the cervical secretion appears to be greatly tightened as a result of the treatment, thus giving the woof a general appearance typical of cervical mucus in the late luteal phase. The immobilizing effect of such modified mucus on spermatozoa is demonstrated and the duration of effectiveness after the administration of a last pill on the morning of day 13 is determined.  相似文献
7.
A randomized double-blind study of two combined oral contraceptives and two progestogen-only oral contraceptives was conducted using the same protocol at WHO Collaborating Centres for Clinical Research in Human Reproduction in Bombay and Ljubljana of the 518 women admitted to the trial, 123 received mestranol 50 micrograms + norethisterone 1mg (MES 50 + NET 1); 137 received ethinyl estradiol 30 micrograms + levonorgestrel 150 micrograms (EE 30 + LNG 150); 130 received norethisterone 350 micrograms/NET 350); and 128 received levonorgestrel 30 micrograms (LNG 30). At one year, between 52.6 and 61.0 percent of those recruited had discontinued oral contraceptive use for all reasons, and by two years, between 70.5 and 76.5 percent had discontinued the treatment. These rates did not differ between the four treatment groups. However, discontinuation rates for all medical reasons at one and two years, and at two years pregnancy rates and discontinuation rates for bleeding disturbances, were significantly lower in the EE/LNG preparation. The groups receiving the MES/NET, LNG and NET had similar pregnancy rates, discontinuation rates for all medical reasons and all bleeding disturbances. There were two ectopic pregnancies among the 22 pregnancies in the progestogen-only groups. Discontinuation because of headache, dizziness and other central nervous system symptoms were significantly more common in those receiving MES/NET compared to EE/LNG. In contrast, discontinuation for gastro-intestinal disturbances were significantly higher in the EE/LNG combined preparation. Bleeding disturbances in the first few cycles tended to be higher in NET than in the LNG group. The data suggest that greater consideration be given to the benefits and risks of including progestogen-only oral contraceptives in the family planning programmes of some countries.  相似文献
8.
A multicentre phase III clinical trial has been undertaken to compare norethisterone enantate (NET-EN) given by two different treatment regimens and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). After 18 months of observation, preliminary findings are reported for 1,589 women who received DMPA 150mg every 90 days; 790 women who received NET-EN 200mg every 60 days; and 796 women who received NET-EN, 200mg every 60 days for 6 months, then 200mg every 84 days.The overall discontinuation rates per 100 women were similar for all three treatment groups over the 18 months observation (61.8–63.5 per 100 women). The discontinuation rates for bleeding problems and for personal reasons were also similar for all three treatment groups. However, terminations due to amenorrhoea were significantly higher among DMPA users (12.1 and 17.4 per 100 women at 12 and 18 months) as compared with both NET-EN groups (6.8–8.2 per 100 women at 12 months and 10.4–10.9 per 100 women at 18 months).The only significant difference in pregnancy rates observed between the three groups was a higher rate at 18 months among NET-EN (84 days) users (1.6 per 100 women), as compared with DMPA users (0.2 per 100 women). There was no overall significant difference between the two NET-EN groups, although between the 6 and 18 month's follow-up when the two NET-EN regimens diverged, the NET-EN (84 days) users' pregnancy rate rose significantly, wherease in the NET-EN (60 days) group the pregnancy rate did not change. There was a significantly higher weight gain in those subjects using NET-EN at 60-day intervals compared with those using it at 84-day intervals.  相似文献
9.
In October 1992 the World Health Organization (WHO) set up ahealth monitoring programme in the former Yugoslavia to obtaininformation on communicable disease upon which to base decisionsabout medical aid requirements. This paper covers the firstyear of the programme (October 1992–October 1993) anddetails the steps taken to set it up. Information was soughtfrom personal contacts, ‘ad hoc’ sources (UnitedNations agencies and non-governmental organizations) and thehealth authorities of the regions of former Yugoslavia. An attemptwas made to establish a sentinel monitoring system to provideroutine data to allow health predictions to be made. A bulletinwas produced to disseminate surveillance results and healthadvice. The system obtained sufficient data (mostly from ‘adhoc’ sources) for WHO to take informed decisions aboutmedical aid but the sentinel system was not established successfully.  相似文献
10.
ABSTRACT: Radiology continues to play an important role in diagnosis and management of disease. The provision of radiology services to rural areas has represented a challenge to rural communities all over the world, particularly in developing countries. In 1980, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the Basic Radiological System (BRS) project to provide the specifications for a safe, inexpensive diagnostic imaging system for rural areas, together with radiological manuals. Several manufacturers now produce imaging equipment to the WHO-BRS standard and are meeting the WHO goal for providing 'appropriate technology for better health' in rural areas of developing countries. With the improvement in access to radiological systems, the WHO is now turning to improving the provision of ultrasound manuals and equipment.  相似文献
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