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1.
Hang HM  Bach TT  Byass P 《Public health》2005,119(6):466-473
OBJECTIVES: To document unintentional injuries in a rural community over a 1-year period as a basis for prioritizing preventive activities. STUDY DESIGN: Quarterly home visits over 1 year to elicit experience of injury among household members in the preceding 3 months. METHODS: In total, 24,776 people living in rural communities in the Bavi District, Northern Vietnam, were surveyed in home visits during 2000. In the home visits, injuries that needed care or disrupted normal activities were recorded, together with their circumstances. RESULTS: Overall, 2079 new non-fatal injuries were recorded over 23,338 person-years, a rate of 89/1000 person-years-at-risk. Males had a significantly higher injury rate than females for all age groups except for those aged 35-59 years and the elderly (P<0.05). The elderly were at highest risk of injury (P<0.05), particularly females. Home injuries occurred at the highest overall rate, particularly among the elderly. Road traffic injuries were most common among children. Most injuries involved contact with another object. Less than one-quarter of injury victims sought care at a health facility. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based household surveys revealed the hidden part of the injury iceberg, as well as showing high incidence rates, indicating that injury is an important public health problem which should be a priority for intervention in rural Vietnam, and probably elsewhere. This comprehensive study is intended to contribute evidence and methods to the Ministry of Health's national programme for injury prevention, and to a wider audience.  相似文献
2.
Measuring client-perceived quality of maternity services in rural Vietnam.   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility, reliability and validity of a 20-item scale for measuring perceived quality of maternity services provided at commune health centres in rural Vietnam. DESIGN: A survey of 200 women who gave birth in July-August 2000 and 196 pregnant women in 34 communes in Quang Xuong District, Thanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Inter-rater reliability, internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were examined. The associations between perceived quality and client characteristics were also investigated. RESULTS: The instrument had relatively good inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. Except for two items: 'good clinical examination' and 'adequacy of health workers for women's health', the scale exhibited good agreement between the two raters, with kappa values ranging from 0.54 to 0.84. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the dimensions 'health care delivery', 'health facility', 'interpersonal aspects of care' and 'access to services' were 0.72, 0.64, 0.72 and 0.33, respectively. Respondents were positive on items related to the dimensions 'interpersonal aspects of care' and 'access to services', but negative on the dimensions 'health care delivery' and 'health facility'. The maternity status of clients was found to influence the perceived quality of maternity services. CONCLUSIONS: The feasibility, reliability and validity of the instrument were established in the context of rural Vietnam. Its application in evaluating other health care programmes should be an important follow-up action for the Vietnamese government.  相似文献
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OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyse the associations between cause-specific mortality in adults (aged 20 years and above) and socio-economic status (SES) in a rural setting of Vietnam during a time of economic transition. STUDY DESIGN: The study was carried out as part of the FilaBavi demographic surveillance system, with a dynamic cohort of 50,000 inhabitants from January 1999 to December 2003. METHODS: Causes of death in the adult population were derived using verbal autopsy. A Cox regression model was employed to check the association of SES with three major causes of death: communicable diseases; non-communicable diseases; and injuries. RESULTS: The crude mortality rates were 9.2 and 6.6 per 1000 person-years in adult males and females, respectively. Men had higher mortality rates than women for all mortality categories and for all levels of education and household economic situation (HES). Mortality rates increased substantially with age, and showed similar age effects for all mortality categories with the strongest association for non-communicable diseases. Education was an important factor for survival in general, and high HES seemed to benefit men more than women. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions and policies to reduce exposure to risk factors for non-communicable diseases are needed in low-education groups. However, further study is needed to analyse the mortality inequity across all age groups.  相似文献
5.
How do women and frontline health workers engage in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in urban areas of Vietnam and Indonesia, where HIV is highly stigmatized and is associated with injecting drug use and sex work? This qualitative study explores local dynamics of care, using a mix of observations, focus group discussions, and interviews. In Indonesia the study was conducted in a community-based PMTCT program run by an NGO, while in Vietnam the study explored the care dynamics in routine PMTCT services, implemented by district and provincial public health facilities. In both of these PMTCT arrangements (the routine provider initiated approach in Vietnam and a more client-oriented system in Indonesia), pregnant women value the provision of HIV tests in antenatal care (ANC). Concerns are raised, however, by the unhappy few who test positive. These women are unsatisfied with the quality of counselling, and the failure to provide antiretroviral treatments. Acceptability of HIV testing in ANC is high, but the key policy issue from the perspective of pregnant women is whether the PMTCT services can provide good quality counselling and the necessary follow-up care.We find local level providers of PMTCT are pleased with the PMTCT program. In Vietnam, the PMTCT program offers health workers protection against HIV, since they can refer women away from the district health service for delivery. In Indonesia, community cadres are pleased with the financial incentives gained by mobilizing clients for the program.We conclude that achieving the global aims of reducing HIV infections in children by 50% requires a tailoring of globally designed public health programs to context-specific gendered transmission pathways of HIV, as well as local opportunities for follow-up care and social support.  相似文献
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Community-based social marketing and mobilization increased knowledge and participation in preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in Vietnam. Rates of buying and taking the weekly supplement containing 60 mg elemental iron and 3.5 mg folic acid among non-pregnant women of reproductive age was between 55% and 92%. Free distribution to pregnant women of the weekly supplement containing 120 mg iron and 3.5 mg folic acid covered almost all pregnant women during the project. In developing countries where community women's groups and health networks are strong, preventive supplementation can be successfully promoted to encourage active participation in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia.  相似文献
8.
The postservice mortality of a cohort of 10,716 US Marine veterans who served in Vietnam was compared with that of 9,346 Marine veterans who did not serve in Vietnam. There was a significant excess of death for Vietnam Marines from all causes and all external causes. After adjustments for age and rank in military, overall mortality continued to be statistically significant, with a relative risk of 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02 to 1.29) for Vietnam Marines compared to non-Vietnam Marines. All external causes was also significant, with a relative risk of 1.21 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.47). The excess overall mortality was mainly due to excess deaths from external causes. The risks for several site-specific cancers were elevated but not statistically significant. Periodic follow-up of this Marine cohort should continue to determine whether there are statistically significant differences in the mortality patterns of Marine Vietnam and non-Vietnam veterans, especially for cancers.  相似文献
9.
Vietnam is one of the countries in the world most affected by soil-transmitted helminthiases. Large areas of the country, such as the Northern Uplands and the North and Central Coast, are reported as having infection rates of 75-85% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 38-40% for Trichuris trichiura and 27-28% for hookworm infections. Periodical deworming of schoolchildren is therefore strongly recommended. Managers of the Helminth Control Programme decided to apply a number of measures to improve cost efficiency in order to deworm as many schoolchildren as possible with the limited financial resources available. This low-cost intervention targeted over 2.7 million schoolchildren. Coverage was estimated at over 95% and the cost for each treated child was US$ 0.03, which represents a saving of approximately 50% of costs presently reported in the literature. This article describes the measures applied that resulted in cost containment but maintained high treatment coverage.  相似文献
10.
Studying the antimicrobial drug resistance of nasopharyngeal or nasal carriage isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children is likely to have predictive potential for invasive isolates. Streptococcus pneumoniae nasal carriage was studied in 1422 Vietnamese children. Forty-six percent of 536 isolates showed reduced susceptibility to penicillin and 7% showed intermediate susceptibility to ceftriaxone; and 50% of 518 isolates showed resistance to erythromycin. All isolates were sensitive to levofloxacin and gatifloxacin. Urban and suburban children were significantly more likely to carry drug-resistant isolates than rural children. Rates of non-susceptibility to penicillin and erythromycin increased significantly in the rural province Khanh Hoa in 2003/2004 compared with rates obtained in 1997. An emerging clone of penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae of serogroup 15 was identified, which was widely distributed in addition to the pandemic clones Spain(23F)-1 and Taiwan(19F)-14. Although resistance to fluoroquinolones was not observed, 6 (18%) of 34 isolates had a Lys137Asn mutation in the parC gene. This study shows that drug resistance is increasing in carriage isolates of S. pneumoniae in rural areas in Vietnam owing to spread of pandemic and emerging resistant clones.  相似文献
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