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Using emerging international guidelines, stringent procedures were used to develop and evaluate Canadian-French, German and UK translations/ adaptions of the 50 item, parent-completed Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50). Multitrait analysis was used to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of the hypothesized item sets across countries relative to the results obtained for a representative sample of children in the US. Cronbach's a coefficient was used to estimate the internal consistency reliability for each of the health scales. Floor and ceiling effects were also examined. Seventy-nine percent of all the item-scale correlations achieved acceptable internal consistency (0.40 or higher). The tests of the item convergent and discriminant validity were successful at least 87% of the time across all scales and countries. Equal item variance was observed 90% of the time across all countries. The reliability coefficients ranged from a low of 0.43 (parental time impact, Canadian English) to a high of 0.97 (physical functioning index, Canadian French) across all scales (median 0.80). Negligible floor effects were observed across countries. Noteworthy ceiling effects were observed, as expected, for the hypothesized physical scales (mean effect 73%). Conversely, fewer ceiling effects were observed for the psychosocial scales (range 3–17% behaviour parental emotional impact). The item-scaling results obtained in these pilot studies support the psychometric properties of the American-English CHQ-PF50 and its respective translations.  相似文献
氯化镉诱发16HBE细胞系恶性转化过程中TIF3 p36的变化   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
目的 探讨氯化镉诱发人支气管上皮细胞(16HBE)恶性转化过程中不同阶段蛋白翻译起始因子(TIF3)p36 mRNA表达水平的变化,为进一步阐明氯化镉的分子致癌机制提供线索.方法 应用逆转录-聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)技术,以及敏感先进的Taqman荧光定量PCR方法,检测并分析氯化镉诱发16HBE恶性转化不同阶段即转化期间细胞、转化细胞和成瘤细胞的TIF3 p36 mRNA表达量的变化.结果 相对于非转化对照细胞(16HBE),氯化镉诱发恶性转化不同阶段细胞(转化期间细胞、转化细胞和成瘤细胞)的TIF3 p36 mRNA基因表达水平均明显升高(P<0.01或P<0.05),其中低剂量组(5 μmol/L)所转化的各阶段细胞的eIF3 p36 mRNA平均表达量分别是对照细胞的3.1、5.9和9.9倍,中剂量组(10 μmol/L)的各阶段转化细胞的TIF3平均表达量分别是对照细胞的7.1、6.8和14.8倍,高剂量组(15 μmol/L)的各阶段转化细胞的TIF3 p36平均表达量分别是对照细胞的3.6、3.0和9.1倍.这些不同剂量组的研究结果提示,eIF3 p36的异常表达量与氯化镉诱发16HBE细胞恶变程度之间有正相关关系,但与镉的剂量无关.结论 氯化镉在诱发16HBE细胞恶变过程中,存在明显的蛋白翻译启动因子eIF3 p36异常表达现象,其表达水平与细胞的恶变程度密切相关,这可能是氯化镉诱发人细胞肿瘤的重要分子致癌机制之一.  相似文献
目的 建立登革1~4型病毒的多重逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)快速检测及分型方法。方法 参照登革1~4型病毒核酸序列设计多重RT-PCR引物,并检索国际基因序列数据库初步验证其特异性,随后对PCR反应条件进行优化,以同属于黄病毒科的黄热病毒、流行性乙型脑炎病毒为对照,验证其特异性。并对2003年30份临床疑似登革患者血清标本进行了检测,阳性片段克隆测序验证扩增片段特异性。结果 采用多重PCR引物对登革1~4型病毒进行扩增,分别获得295、237、118、347bp片段,与设计相符;而黄热病毒及流行性乙型脑炎病毒均无非特异性扩增条带,对引物的相关性实验结果表明引物之间不会因相互干扰而出现假阳性结果,30份疑似患者血标本RT-PCR扩增阳性率为83.3%(25/30),其核酸序列与登革1型病毒柬埔寨株以及中国1997、1999年流行株GD14/97、G1305/99同源性分别为97%、97%、98%。结论 实验证明,所建立的多重PCR方法能够快速地检测和鉴定登革1~4型病毒,为登革病毒的检测及分型提供了一种方便易行的方法。  相似文献
Objective: to determine the psychometric properties of the recently developed German version of the Multidimensional Quality of Life Questionnaire for HIV/AIDS (MQOL-HIV) and to test its performance in a sample of HIV-infected patients. Methods: Two-hundred and seven outpatients with HIV/AIDS were interviewed with the German version of the MQOL-HIV; 109 patients were interviewed a second time approximately 2 weeks later. Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II). Results: The German version of the MQOL-HIV showed satisfactory internal consistency (r: 0.74–0.85, sexual functioning: r = 0.61) and test–retest reliability in most subscales (r: 0.74–0.89, medical care: r = 0.67). Convergent validity with WHODAS II and BDI was satisfactory for most domains. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a seven-factor solution with separate factors for physical, emotional, cognitive, social and financial aspects, sexual functioning and medical care. CD4 count and source of infection were associated with most QOL domains, whereas age and gender showed no major impact on QOL. High rates of missing values were seen in the partnership domain and substantial ceiling effects in the area of medical care. Conclusions: Overall the German version of the MQOL-HIV showed satisfactory reliability and validity. However, the domains of partnership, sexuality and medical care should generally receive more emphasis in future research on QOL assessment in patients with HIV/AIDS and the MQOL-HIV may be improved in these domains.  相似文献
There is need for multilingual cross-culturally valid quality of life (QOL) instrumentation to assess the QOL endpoint in international oncology clinical trials. We therefore initiated a multilingual translation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) Quality of Life Measurement System (Version 3) into the following languages: Dutch, French, German, Italian, Norwegian and Swedish. Prior to this project, the FACT Measurement System was available in English, Spanish and Canadian French. The FACT is a self-report instrument which measures multidimensional QOL. The FACT (Version 3) evaluation system uses a 29–49 item compilation of a generic core (29 Likert-type items) and numerous subscales (9–20 items each) which reflect symptoms associated with different diseases, symptom complexes and treatments. The FACT-G (general version) and eight of 18 available cancer-related subscales were translated using an iterative forward-backward translation sequence. After subsequent review by 21 bilingual health professionals, all near final language versions underwent pretesting with a total of 95 patients in the native countries. Available results indicate good overall comprehensibility among native language-speakers. Equivalent foreign language versions of the FACT will permit QOL evaluation of people from diverse cultural backgrounds.Supported by grants from Amgen Incorporated, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Eli Lilly International Corporation, Rhone-Poulenc Rorer Pharmaceuticals Incorporated and Sandoz Pharmaceuticals.  相似文献
中西文化差异与旅游资料的翻译   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
目的:提高旅游资料翻译的质量,促进中国旅游业的进一步发展.方法:通过分析中西文化的主要差异和旅游资料翻译的特点,提出旅游资料翻译中的文化处理原则和具体的翻译技巧.结论:在具体的旅游翻译实践中,运用添加解释性语境信息、删减冗余信息、类比、再创造等方法,缩小文化差异,可成功地进行文化交流.  相似文献
硫化镍转化人细胞翻译启动因子的异常表达   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
目的探讨结晶型硫化镍(NiS)在诱发人支气管上皮细胞(16HBE)恶变过程中蛋白质翻译启动因子(TIF3)的异常表达,以阐明不容性硫化镍的人类分子致癌机制。方法应用逆转录-聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)技术,以及敏感先进的荧光定量PCR方法,对异常表达的蛋白质翻译启动因子TIF进行检测。结果相对于非转化对照细胞,RT-PCR实验初步显示,这些镍转化细胞和成瘤细胞的TIF3基因表达水平显著升高,平均分别是对照细胞的2和4倍,表明TIF3的异常表达水平与硫化镍诱发人支气管上皮细胞的恶变程度有关。结论不容性结晶型硫化镍在诱发人支气管上皮细胞恶变过程中,存在明显的蛋白质翻译启动因子TIF3异常表达现象,其表达水平与细胞的恶变程度密切相关,可能是结晶型硫化镍诱发人细胞肿瘤的重要分子致癌机制之一。  相似文献
肝细胞生长因子改善移植小肠的粘膜屏障功能   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
目的 :了解肝细胞生长因子 (HGF)对改善移植小肠粘膜屏障功能的作用。 方法 :以Wistar大鼠为供体 ,SD大鼠为受体 ,行异位全小肠移植 ,并以环孢素A(CsA) 6mg/(kg·d)肌注 ,抑制排斥反应 ;肝细胞生长因子组(HGF组 )用微量输液泵持续均匀输入HGF 15 0 μg/(kg·d) ;对照组输入等量等渗盐水。于第 7天以乳果糖及甘露醇对移植小肠进行灌注 ,第 8天采集移植肠系膜淋巴结及门静脉血行细菌培养。 结果 :对照组尿液中乳果糖含量 (0 .0 931± 0 .0 0 85vs 0 .0 15 0± 0 .0 0 2 0 ,P =0 .0 0 0 1)及乳果糖 /甘露醇比率 (0 .132± 0 .0 2 1vs0 .0 2 0± 0 .0 0 5 ,P=0 .0 0 0 1)明显高于正常标准。HGF组乳果糖含量 (0 .0 396± 0 .0 0 90vs 0 .0 15 0± 0 .0 0 2 0 ,P =0 .0 0 2 3)及乳果糖 /甘露醇比率 (0 .0 5 6± 0 .0 13vs 0 .0 2 0± 0 .0 0 5 ,P =0 .0 0 17)也较正常标准增加 ,且两项指标均显著低于对照组(P <0 .0 5 )。HGF组移植肠系膜淋巴结细菌培养阳性率为 10 % ,对照组为 6 0 % ,明显高于HGF组 (P =0 .0 2 8)。HGF组与对照组门静脉血培养细菌阳性率无显著差异。 结论 :HGF能够降低同种移植小肠粘膜的通透性及细菌移位率 ,改善肠粘膜屏障功能。  相似文献
This commentary highlights the importance of regular physical activity to the nation’s health and discusses some of the major challenges and opportunities currently facing the field.  相似文献
Translating culture and language: a research note on multilingual settings   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Abstract Language and translation are not treated as part of the problematic in sociological research when compared with that of social anthropology, and this relative inattention can be related to the parallel development of the two disciplines. Ethnographic evidence from studies of identity, social support and wellbeing among Glasgow Punjabis suggests that the complex and strategic blending and switching of vocabulary, tone and accent is one means through which identities and support networks are negotiated and affirmed. The hybrid use of language can and should be reflected in the way that research is conducted with multilingual communities and some preliminary suggestions are made.  相似文献
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