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1.
Nanotechnology has the potential to generate new food products and new food packaging. In a mail survey in the German speaking part of Switzerland, lay people's (N=337) perceptions of 19 nanotechnology applications were examined. The goal was to identify food applications that are more likely and food applications that are less likely to be accepted by the public. The psychometric paradigm was employed, and applications were described in short scenarios. Results suggest that affect and perceived control are important factors influencing risk and benefit perception. Nanotechnology food packaging was assessed as less problematic than nanotechnology foods. Analyses of individual data showed that the importance of naturalness in food products and trust were significant factors influencing the perceived risk and the perceived benefit of nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.  相似文献
2.
This study explored Finnish home-birth parents' perceptions of risks in home birth through interviews. It was found that the parents considered three types of risks in their decision-making: medical risks of pregnancy and birth, iatrogenic risks of medical practice and moral risks of going against medical authoritative knowledge. While the parents' choice was guided by their image of the hospital as an iatrogenic environment for birth, they did not refuse prenatal examinations but, rather, negotiated the extent of their use to ensure the medical safety of their home-birth plan. Yet, they often concealed the plan from prenatal care staff in order not to be confronted with being labelled as a 'risk parent'. It is argued that the authoritative medical definition of childbirth as risky and as requiring hospitalisation contains a moral subtext which defines home birth as risky behaviour, for which the parents can be blamed and stigmatised.  相似文献
3.
BACKGROUND: The Directive 1999/0244 (COD), recently approved by the European Parliament, proposed that the content and presentation of health warnings on cigarette packets be modified. The aim of the present study was to analyse the potential effect of the planned measures on the perceptions by Spanish youth of the risks associated with smoking. METHOD: A sample of 435 students attending the University of La Rioja were surveyed on their perceptions of the principal health risks attributable to the consumption of tobacco i.e. lung cancer, respiratory diseases and cardiovascular disease. A questionnaire was administered before and after they were presented with a demonstration of the health warnings on cigarette packets based on the new European Union directive. RESULTS: Perceptions changed significantly following exposure to the content and type of information of the new packaging. In general, the university students attributed a higher health risk to smoking following the presentation. CONCLUSIONS: The measures developed by the public sector to present a higher profile of anti-tobacco health warnings do influence the target population in the desired direction, at least in the short term. Hence, given that the perception of risk influences the election to smoke, it is predictable that when these types of policy decisions are applied, there will be a tendency towards a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of tobacco consumption.  相似文献
4.
Population risk perceptions of global warming in Australia   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  

Introduction

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), global warming has the potential to dramatically disrupt some of life’s essential requirements for health, water, air and food. Understanding how Australians perceive the risk of global warming is essential for climate change policy and planning. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and socio-demographic factors associated with, high levels of perceived likelihood that global warming would worsen, concern for self and family and reported behaviour changes.

Methods

A module of questions on global warming was incorporated into the New South Wales Population Health Survey in the second quarter of 2007. This Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) was completed by a representative sample of 2004 adults. The weighted sample was comparable to the Australian population. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted to examine the socio-demographic and general health factors.

Results

Overall 62.1% perceived that global warming was likely to worsen; 56.3% were very or extremely concerned that they or their family would be directly affected by global warming; and 77.6% stated that they had made some level of change to the way they lived their lives, because of the possibility of global warming. After controlling for confounding factors, multivariate analyses revealed that those with high levels of psychological distress were 2.17 (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.17; CI: 1.16–4.03; P=0.015) times more likely to be concerned about global warming than those with low psychological distress levels. Those with a University degree or equivalent and those who lived in urban areas were significantly more likely to think that global warming would worsen compared to those without a University degree or equivalent and those who lived in the rural areas. Females were significantly (AOR=1.69; CI: 1.23–2.33; P=0.001) more likely to report they had made changes to the way they lived their lives due to the risk of global warming.

Conclusions

A high proportion of respondents reported that they perceived that global warming would worsen, were concerned that it would affect them and their families and had already made changes in their lives because of it. These findings support a readiness in the population to deal with global warming. Future research and programs are needed to investigate population-level strategies for future action.  相似文献
5.
Collectively shared ideas of community may be equally relevant for the study of health disparities as quantifying the relationship between community structures and health. Data from focus groups (N = 18) that explored understandings of breast cancer and breast cancer risk in African American neighbourhoods revealed three conceptual domains where shared ideas of community informed responses: collective memory, community candidacy, and community victimisation by external aggressors. Reading the focus group responses in terms of these domains identified perceptions of risk and of candidacy that may be overlooked by individualised or quantitative approaches to studying breast cancer risk perceptions and related behaviours. These include novel perceived risks, such as the 'risk of knowing', as well as community-level constructions of breast cancer candidacy. 'Lay epidemiologies' of breast cancer within this population might therefore be better understood as 'community epidemiologies', where community is central to the interpretation and operationalisation of breast cancer risk. Paying attention to such community epidemiologies of breast cancer provides theoretical insights for studying breast cancer disparities and risk perceptions as well as useful guidance for designing interventions.  相似文献
6.
Hepatitis C prevention counselling and education are intended to increase knowledge of disease, clarify perceptions about vulnerability to infection, and increase personal capacity for undertaking safer behaviours. This study examined the association of drug equipment sharing with psychosocial constructs of the AIDS Risk Reduction Model, specifically, knowledge and perceptions related to hepatitis C virus (HCV) among injection drug users (IDUs). Active IDUs were recruited between April 2004 and January 2005 from syringe exchange and methadone maintenance treatment programs in Montreal, Canada. A structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire elicited information on drug preparation and injection practices, self-reported hepatitis C testing and infection status, and AIDS Risk Reduction Model constructs. Separate logistic regression models were developed to examine variables in relation to: (1) the sharing of syringes, and (2) the sharing of drug preparation equipment (drug containers, filters, and water). Among the 321 participants, the mean age was 33 years, 70% were male, 80% were single, and 91% self-identified as Caucasian. In the multivariable analyses, psychosocial factors linked to syringe sharing were lower perceived benefits of safer injecting and greater difficulty to inject safely. As with syringe sharing, the sharing of drug preparation equipment was associated with lower perceived benefits of safer injecting but also with low self-efficacy to convince others to inject more safely. Interventions should aim to heighten awareness of the benefits of risk reduction and provide IDUs with the skills necessary to negotiate safer injecting with their peers.  相似文献
7.
According to the rational choice model, informed consent should consist of a systematic, step-by-step evaluation of all information pertinent to the treatment or research participation decision. Research shows that people frequently deviate from this normative model, however, employing decision-making shortcuts, or heuristics. In this paper we report findings from a qualitative study of 32 adolescents and (their) 31 parents who were recruited from two Northeastern US hospitals and asked to consider the risks of and make hypothetical decisions about research participation. The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of how diabetic and at-risk adolescents (i.e., those who are obese and/or have a family history of diabetes) and their parents perceive risks and make decisions about research participation. Using data collected from adolescents and parents, we identify heuristic decision processes in which participant perceptions of risk magnitude, which are formed quickly and intuitively and appear to be based on affective responses to information, are far more prominent and central to the participation decision than are perceptions of probability. We discuss participants' use of decision-making heuristics in the context of recent research on affect and decision processes, and we consider the implications of these findings for researchers.  相似文献
8.
Public health services often have to deal with reported clusters of adverse health events. An important characteristic of disease clusters is that the involved community often is concerned about environmental factors influencing health. To facilitate cluster investigations, a stepwise protocol was developed in the Netherlands, based on international literature. Essential is the two-way approach, consisting of a disease-track and an environment-track. Attention to potential environmental exposures is as important as attention to the reported diseases, not only because environmental pollution often is the reason of public concern and thus relevant for risk communication, but also for deciding about the boundaries of the population at risk. Moreover, environmental information is necessary for judgement of the plausibility of a causal relation and for advising measures to prevent exposure. Within this two-way approach, three stages are distinguished: orientation stage, verification stage and quantification stage. Only if an increased risk as well as an elevated exposure is verified, under certain conditions a case–control study may be useful to study causality between exposure and adverse health events. During all stages of the investigation, good risk communication strategies have to be taken into account. However, even then it might be difficult to prevent conflicts, because of the differing interests between experts and the community involved. One of the most important aspects that determine judgements about risks by threatened people, is controllability; that is why community participation is essential. Therefore it can be concluded that cluster management is a mutual endeavour for experts, public and media, where experts are judged on three characteristics: expertise, credibility and empathy.  相似文献
9.
Unique invulnerability has been defined as the perception that one is less vulnerable than the average person to negative events. This study examined positive outcomes of risky behaviors with respect to unique invulnerability, taking into consideration an individual's knowledge and experience of a given risk. If the phenomenon is truly one of unique invulnerability, then we would predict either no self–other differences for positive outcomes or even an enhanced belief that more desirable outcomes would happen to oneself. We found quite the opposite. Subjects estimated that they would be less likely than others to experiencebothpositive and negative outcomes. These findings invite not only a reconsideration of unique invulnerability, but also provide important new information about risk perception within a sexual context.  相似文献
10.
Effective health risk communication is an important tool that can prevent or modify the inappropriate public reactions that often accompany occupational and environmental health issues and allegations. The public perception of the magnitude or significance of risk is influenced by factors other than scientific data. The goal of risk communication therefore is more than just imparting scientific facts. It is about ensuring that the public fully understand risk and that they are enabled to make informed decisions under conditions of uncertainty. How people perceive risk, and their values and feelings toward occupational and environmental health issues, are as important considerations for risk communication as are numerical or factual scientific data. Occupational and environmental health scares often occur because of complexities such as the multidimensionality of risk, trust or mistrust in sources of information, technological revolution, the reliance of the public on the media for health information and the public desire for information and the truth. If, as health professionals, we are to address effectively both real and perceived occupational and environmental health issues, we need to be aware of the major advances that have been made in the use of risk communication in recent years.  相似文献
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