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1.
我国水和环境卫生服务供给省际差异问题研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
随着我国经济的发展以及各级政府的高度重视,我国水和环境卫生供给总量不足的问题正逐步得到缓解,但是供给不均衡的问题尚未得到有效遏制。2008年卫生统计年鉴省际统计数据分析显示,我国水和环境卫生服务供给省际差距仍较大。水和环境卫生改善不仅是新农村建设"村容整洁"重要组成部分,也是公共卫生基本服务不可缺少的环节。同时也是当今被广泛认可的全球可持续发展目标———千年发展目标(MDGS)的重要指标。该问题如得不到应有的关注,将不仅影响到农民的生存和发展,也将波及东西部区域的均衡发展。因此,各级政府应将水和环境卫生改善纳入经济社会发展总体规划,并建立以公共需求为导向的水和环境卫生服务供给模式等促进水和环境卫生服务供给的均衡化。  相似文献
2.
用关联分析法研究了儿童体格发育的地域差异,按体格发育的优劣排出了各地域的序次,结果满意,表明关联分析是一种多指标系统综合评价和综合排序的简单可靠的新方法。  相似文献
3.
Directly age-standardized rates of out-patient utilization ofantihypertensive drugs (antihypertensives, diuretics and beta-blockers)and stroke mortality in men and women (40–79 years ofage) were compared over 4 years (1987–1990) in a midwestern(Värmland) and a southern (Skäne) province of Swedenand in their 49 (16 + 33) municipalities. In both genders, thestroke mortality and utilization rates of the 3 antihypertensivedrug groups, both combined and separate, were higher in Värmlandand there were positive correlations between these rates whenall 49 municipalities were compared. On the other hand, foreach province and each drug group there were municipalitieswith every possible combination of stroke mortality and antihypertensivedrug utilization rates. In addition, antihypertensive drug utilizationrates were similar in men and women even though the stroke mortalityrates were much lower among the latter. The findings cast doubton the effectiveness of antihypertensive drug treatment in commonpractice.  相似文献
4.
The purpose of this paper was to study regional differencesin the use of in-patient hospital services by adults in Spainand to explore how several factors are related to hospital utilization.We studied a sample of 20,741 individuals representative ofthe non-institutionalized Spanish population older than 15 yearsold interviewed in the Spanish health interview survey, carriedout in 1993. A logistic regression model was used to obtainthe odds ratios of using the in-patient hospital services forsocioeconomic status, health care need, health services resourcescharacteristics and for the 17 autonomous communities into whichSpain is divided. Aragon, Baleares and Navarra showed a highpercentage of people using hospital services while in Madridand Asturias a low percentage was found. Indicators of needfor health care were the most important predictive factors ofhospital utilization and neither socioeconomic status nor healthcare system characteristics were associated with the use ofhospital services. Although only 5 autonomous communities showeda high or low percentage of people using hospital services,the unexplained variance needs further research in order toidentify unnecessary reasons for utilization and accessibilityproblems.  相似文献
5.
Two regional categorizations in smoking were compared. A categorization that was based on historical folk culture was expected to predict smoking stronger than one based on administrative division. Regionally representative samples of 16- and 18-year-olds were surveyed. A data set for administrative (N1 = 23 478) and a data set for cultural categorization (N2 = 15 709) were constructed. In logistic regression analyzes regional variance was largest in snuff experiments. After socio-demographic background was controlled, cultural categorization did not predict snuff experiments, non-smoking and frequent smoking better than the administrative one. On this evidence regional smoking patterns are unlikely to be based on historical smoking cultures.  相似文献
6.
Objective: The influence of area of residence on haemoglobin (Hb) adducts of 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), o-, m-, p-toluidine and o-anisidine was investigated in children from three different-sized Bavarian cities – Munich, Augsburg and Eichstätt, with 1,300,000, 250,000 and 13,000 inhabitants, respectively – and was compared with that of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Methods: Blood samples from Munich (n=34) and Eichstätt (n=64) were from children attending the Paediatric Clinic of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) or a practice in Eichstätt, respectively. Blood samples (n=126) together with urine samples (n=88) were collected from Augsburg children during school medical examination. Personal data including possible sources of ETS exposure were obtained at the interview. Hb adduct levels were analysed by a gas chromatographic method, using mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring. Urinary cotinine was determined by radioimmunoassay. Results: 4-ABP Hb adduct levels in children from Munich were 1.5 and 1.2 times higher than those in children from Eichstätt and Augsburg (P<0.001). Children from Munich also had significantly higher Hb adduct levels of monocyclic aromatic amines than did children from Eichstätt and, except for o-toluidine, children from Augsburg (P<0.005). Compared with children from Eichstätt, children from Augsburg had higher Hb adduct levels of 4-ABP, o- and m-toluidine (P<0.01) but not p-toluidine and o-anisidine. In a multivariate analysis, gender, age and body mass index had no consistent influence on Hb adducts. ETS exposure resulted in a slight, nonsignificant increase in 4-ABP Hb adduct levels. In contrast, adduct levels from monocyclic aromatic amines were consistently decreased in ETS-exposed children (significant for o- and m-toluidine, P<0.05). Conclusions: Hb adducts from aromatic amines in children were strongly influenced by site of residence, whereas ETS exposure did not significantly increase the adduct levels.  相似文献
7.
BACKGROUND: Given the increasing prevalence of childhood overweight, we aimed to quantify the population burden and evaluate potential regional differences in anthropometric characteristics and prevalence of overweight in fourth graders in two German cities. METHODS: Data were analysed from a cross-sectional school-based study conducted in 1995-96 in Dresden (former East Germany) and Munich (former West Germany) as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Height and weight of the children were measured, and the parents completed a questionnaire. 2474 children age 9-10 years provided anthropometric data. Overweight was defined based on the age-specific and gender-specific international cut-off values for body mass index. RESULTS: Dresden children were on average 1.2 kg lighter and >1 cm taller than their Munich peers. The prevalence of overweight in Dresden was 15.2% in girls and 14.2% in boys compared with 24 and 22.2%, respectively, in Munich. Differences were observed between Dresden and Munich with respect to the proportion of children of non-German nationality, household smoking, breastfeeding practices, and individual dietary behaviours. Even in combination these factors were not able to explain entirely the between-city overweight differences. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of pre-adolescent children in Germany is now considered overweight with marked regional differences in prevalence. Comparison of population-level factors indicate that other unmeasured determinants of overweight may be responsible for the marked differences in the prevalence of overweight.  相似文献
8.
Widespread use of artificial light at night (ALAN) might contribute to the global burden of hormone-dependent cancers. Previous attempts to verify this association in population-level studies have been sparse. Using GLOBOCAN, US-DMSP, and World Bank 2010–2012 databases, we studied the association between ALAN and prostate cancer (PC) incidence in 180 countries worldwide, controlling for several country-level confounders. The PC–ALAN association emerged marginally significant when year-2012 PC age-standardized rate data were compared with ALAN levels (t = 1.886, p < .1); this association was more significant (t > 2.7; p < .01) when only 110 countries with well-maintained cancer registries were analyzed. Along with other variables, ALAN explains up to 79% of PC ASR variability. PC–ALAN association appears to vary regionally, with the greatest deviations in Central Africa, Small Island Developing States, Southeast Asia, and Gulf States.  相似文献
9.
本文从人力与物力两个角度,实证分析了我国不同地区卫生医疗资源地区差异及其变迁,指出从2001年至2011年我国不同地区卫生医疗资源存在两种不同的变迁趋势:人力资源差异的扩大与物力资源差异的趋缓。  相似文献
10.
The source of infection for travelers who develop Legionnaires' disease (LD) shortly after a journey abroad is difficult to ascertain. Infection is likely to have occurred abroad, but could also have occurred at the patient's own residence. The authors conducted a case-control study to determine risk for acquiring LD at home in the Netherlands after traveling abroad. They compared homes of 44 traveling LD patients with 44 homes of nontraveling LD patients, using logistic regression models. Geographic distribution was confounding the association between traveling and presence of Legionella spp. in residences; adjustment was necessary. In traveler's homes, legionellae were present more often, with crude and adjusted OR (95% Cl) being 1.6 (0.5–5.0) and 1.4 (0.4–4.4), respectively. The authors' findings indicate that the patient's residence can be a potential source of infection after traveling.  相似文献
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