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Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
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Human biomonitoring (HBM) can be an effective tool to assess human exposure to environmental pollutants and potential health effects and is increasingly seen as an essential element in a strategy when integrating health and environment. HBM can be used (i) to prioritise actions and measures for policy making; (ii) to evaluate policy actions aimed at reducing exposure to potentially hazardous environmental stressors; and (iii) to promote more comprehensive health impact assessments of policy options. In support of the European Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010, European scientists, experts from authorities and other stakeholders joined forces to work towards developing a functional framework and standards for a coherent HBM in Europe. Within the European coordination action on human biomonitoring, 35 partners from 27 European countries in the COPHES consortium aggregated their experiences and expertise and developed harmonized approaches and recommendations for better comparability of HBM data in Europe via the elaboration of a harmonized study protocol. This protocol is the product of discussion and compromises on the selection of environmental exposures, national environmental health concerns, and political and health priorities. The harmonised approach includes sampling recruitment, and analytical procedures, communication strategies and biobanking initiatives. The protocols and the harmonised approach are a means to increase acceptance and policy support and to in the future to enable determination of time trends. The common pilot study protocol will shortly be tested, adapted and assessed in the framework of the DEMOCOPHES in 17 European countries, including 16 EU Member States. COPHES and DEMOCOPHES constitute important steps towards establishing human biomonitoring as a tool for EU environmental and health policy and to improve quantification of exposure of the general European population to existing and emerging pollutants.  相似文献
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目的:分析我国全科住院医师规范化培训政策工具使用的情况,找出目前政策制定时的侧重点与不平衡之处,为优化调整政策结构提供依据。方法:通过检索2009-2018年间与全科医生培养相关的政策文件,并对纳入的33篇文献进行编码后使用Excel2016进行分析。结果:2011年后关于全科住院医师规范化培训的政策文件数量呈现快速上升的趋势。其中,硬件与软件涉及最多,象征与劝诫型工具中舆论宣传提及最少。系统论维度中内部子模指标占全部指标的69.49%,外部子模占30.51%。结论:基本政策工具维度显示能力建设型政策工具与权威型政策工具使用较多,个别政策工具被忽略,基本政策工具维度分布不合理;系统论维度显示政策的内部子模与外部子模之间的分布不平衡,内部子模分布更广,外部子模中的社会系统响应次数最少。建议:重视激励型政策工具、象征与劝诫型政策工具的使用,全方位激励全科住院医师规范化培训学员;重视系统外部子模工具的使用,充分利用社会系统,营造良好全科执业环境。  相似文献
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目的:比较分析国内各省市在分级诊疗制度建设中政策工具的选择和应用情况,为提高分级诊疗政策执行的有效性提供建议。方法:通过互联网检索各省级政府关于分级诊疗的政策文件,以Rothwell&Zegveld政策工具划分为基础,综合政策文本的归纳和专家意见,归并整理政策工具名称和类别,计算各种政策工具使用的频数,分析政策工具的使用情况。结果:收集了30个省级政府的分级诊疗政策文件,归纳整理出供给型、需求型和环境型3个类别15种政策工具。供给型政策工具占32.92%,需求型政策工具占20.58%,环境型政策工具占46.50%。应用最多的政策工具是法规管制,应用最少的政策工具是病种目录。结论:在政策工具选择上以环境类政策工具应用最多,需求类政策工具应用最少,且以强制性政策工具占主导;东部地区三类政策工具的使用较为均衡,中部地区需求类政策工具使用相对较少,西部地区主要以环境类政策工具为主,而需求类政策工具匮乏。在分级诊疗政策执行过程中应重视政策工具的研究,以适宜的政策工具促使政策目标的达成。  相似文献
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本文从政策工具视角对我国医养结合政策文本进行分析,揭示现有政策工具在政策过程中应用的特点与盲点,并提出相应的政策建议,为完善医养结合政策体系提供借鉴。方法:基于政策工具和政策过程两个维度构建二维分析框架,采用内容分析法,对83项医养结合政策文本、919个政策条文进行分析。结果:政策工具结构不均衡,供给型政策工具占53.86%、需求型政策工具占5.66%、环境型政策工具占40.48%。政策过程不协调,议程设置占12.95%、政策制定占66.27%、政策执行占17.08%、政策评估占3.7%。结论:优化医养结合政策工具结构;统筹医养结合政策过程;健全医养结合政策系统,不断提升医养结合政策工具科学化水平。  相似文献
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目的:远程医疗是现代医学发展的重要方向之一,其健康发展有赖于政府政策的驱动,掌握远程医疗政策工具的供给结构是理解、评估和改善我国远程医疗发展的最佳途径。方法:从政策工具视角出发,基于“政策工具类型维度”和“政策工具目标价值维度”,采用内容分析法对我国1997—2019年发布的222份国家层面的远程医疗相关政策文件进行统计分析。结果与结论:(1)从政策工具类型维度来看,我国远程医疗供给侧政策工具过溢,内部结构不均衡,需求侧政策工具应用不足,环境侧政策工具内部组合不协调,政策总体呈现以政府为主导的投入推动特征。个别政策工具如教育培训、公私合作、政策宣传等应用较少,医保支付政策工具也还需进一步完善。(2)从政策工具目标价值维度来看,政策工具在各阶段都存在明显的差异化选择特征,较少着眼于远程医疗产业整体良性循环的实现,不能够在规范和指导医疗机构间远程医疗平台建设的同时实现远程医疗产业的整体发展与质的提升。  相似文献
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