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This study examines adolescent substance use in relation to family, peer and school factors in the context of Taiwan. Information on family characteristics, satisfaction with performance at school, and peer influence was collected using a case-control study in which a two-stage method was applied to ascertain substance use. A set of hypotheses on interrelationships of substance use (tobacco, alcohol, betel, illicit drugs) and influences were tested with a structural equation model. There was a strong negative relation between family factors and peer relationships (p=0.005). Family variables played an important role in motivation and effort to study (p=0.004). High motivation and effort to study (p=0.0012) and good school adjustment (p=0.078) led to higher satisfaction with performance at school. A significant positive association between peer relationships and deviant peer behaviour was observed (p<0.001). Satisfaction with performance at school was negatively related to deviant peer behaviour (p=0.052). The direct effect of deviant peer behaviour was marginally statistically significant (p=0.011) and an indirect effect of family factors on substance use was statistically significant (p=0.041). In conclusion, the study found that a strong family-peer relationship and family influence has a significant effect on substance use.  相似文献


Chinese people have a markedly lower alcohol consumption than people in the West. Whether alcohol consumption at such levels is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, and the role of blood pressure (BP) in this relationship is unclear. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) and the mediating role of BP in Chinese men aged ≥50 years.

Methods and results

A case–control analysis was conducted on baseline cross-sectional data from the community-based Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2003–2008), using standard 12-lead resting electrocardiograms. By comparing 191 new ECG-LVH cases with 4311 controls, excessive drinking (>210 g/week) showed excess risks for ECG-LVH (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12–3.24), after adjusting for education, income, occupation, physical activity, smoking, body mass index, fasting glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BP, and antihypertensive medication. Mediation analysis showed a significant mediating effect of BP on the association between excessive drinking and ECG-LVH: systolic (31%) and diastolic (16%). After multivariate adjustment, no significant association was found between occasional drinking (<once/week: OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.80–1.80) and moderate drinking (≥once/week to ≤210 g/week: OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.53–1.47) with increased/decreased risk of ECG-LVH.


Alcohol consumption at >210 g/week in Chinese men is an independent risk factor for ECG-LVH. Low power prevented us from examining whether drinking at <once/week to ≤210 g/week is associated with decreased/increased risk of ECG-LVH. Elevated BP partially mediates between alcohol and ECG-LVH. A Mendelian randomization approach with a large sample size is warranted to determine the relations among alcohol consumption, BP, and LVH.  相似文献
目的:探讨影响肝癌病人住院费用的主要因素,为合理控制医疗费用的过快增长并减轻患者经济负担提供理论依据。方法:通过对江苏省南通市两家医院2005—2010年6年共计6 168例肝癌患者进行通径分析研究其住院费用的影响因素。结果:住院日是直接影响住院费用的最主要因素,出院情况、住院年份和有无并发症影响住院费用不仅存在直接效应而且存在间接效应,且出院情况影响住院费用的效应为负相关。年龄、费用负担形式通过住院日间接影响住院费用。结论:住院日和出院情况是影响住院费用作用较大的因子,政府、医疗机构和医疗保险机构应协同努力,采取综合措施,有效控制患者住院费用的过快增长。  相似文献
目的探讨个性、生活事件、心理健康对新兵人性的复杂性的影响模式,为其心理健康教育及心理咨询与治疗提供科学依据。方法采用人性的哲学修订量表中的人性的复杂性分量表、艾森克个性问卷、症状自评量表、生活事件量表对562名新兵进行心理测评。统计处理采用秩变换单因素方差分析、Spearman相关分析及Amos路径分析。结果新兵人性的复杂性正性与个性因素(r=0.15~0.27,P〈0.01)相关显著;Amos路径分析显示神经质对新兵个性的贡献最大(β=0.84,P〈0.01);个性对新兵人性复杂性正性的直接效应(β=0.37,P〈0.001)显著,其在文化水平、心理健康与人性复杂性正性存在显著的间接效应(β=-0.08,P〈0.01;β=0.20,P〈0.01)。结论新兵人性的复杂性的认识受个性影响最大,有必要针对冲动性进行心理训练。  相似文献
Recent studies strongly support the hypothesis that an antioxidant diet inhibits the pathologic aging process as shown in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAM/P-8). In our previous study in coral calcium hydride (CCH), we reported that a diet rich in antioxidants inhibited the pathologic aging process, increased the endogenous antioxidant ability, and contributed to prolonging the lifespan of SAM/P-8. To test the hypothesis that antioxidant CCH supplementation to SAM/P-8 mice would change the gene expression and to understand how CCH reverses the acceleration of aging in SAM/P-8 mice, we used a DNA array to compare the expression levels in the hippocampus of the brains from 16-week-old SAM/P-8 mice that were either treated or not treated with CCH. The most significant up-regulated changes in the gene network of SAM/P-8 mice were free radical scavenging and molecular transport, whereas genes associated with cell death, cancer, and cell cycle were down-regulated. Our findings regarding the changes in these messenger RNA might be associated with the inhibition of the acceleration of aging, as observed in SAM/P-8 mice fed a CCH diet.  相似文献
Genome‐wide association studies (GWASs) are unraveling the genetics of adult brain neuroanatomy as measured by cross‐sectional anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (aMRI). However, the genetic mechanisms that shape childhood brain development are, as yet, largely unexplored. In this study we identify common genetic variants associated with childhood brain development as defined by longitudinal aMRI. Genome‐wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were determined in two cohorts: one enriched for attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (LONG cohort: 458 participants; 119 with ADHD) and the other from a population‐based cohort (Generation R: 257 participants). The growth of the brain's major regions (cerebral cortex, white matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum) and one region of interest (the right lateral prefrontal cortex) were defined on all individuals from two aMRIs, and a GWAS and a pathway analysis were performed. In addition, association between polygenic risk for ADHD and brain growth was determined for the LONG cohort. For white matter growth, GWAS meta‐analysis identified a genome‐wide significant intergenic SNP (rs12386571, P = 9.09 × 10−9), near AKR1B10. This gene is part of the aldo‐keto reductase superfamily and shows neural expression. No enrichment of neural pathways was detected and polygenic risk for ADHD was not associated with the brain growth phenotypes in the LONG cohort that was enriched for the diagnosis of ADHD. The study illustrates the use of a novel brain growth phenotype defined in vivo for further study.  相似文献
Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) aims at identifying essential pathways, or more generally, sets of biologically related genes that are involved in complex human diseases. In the past, many studies have shown that GSEA is a very useful bioinformatics tool that plays critical roles in the innovation of disease prevention and intervention strategies. Despite its tremendous success, it is striking that conclusions of GSEA drawn from isolated studies are often sparse, and different studies may lead to inconsistent and sometimes contradictory results. Further, in the wake of next generation sequencing technologies, it has been made possible to measure genome‐wide isoform‐specific expression levels, calling for innovations that can utilize the unprecedented resolution. Currently, enormous amounts of data have been created from various RNA‐seq experiments. All these give rise to a pressing need for developing integrative methods that allow for explicit utilization of isoform‐specific expression, to combine multiple enrichment studies, in order to enhance the power, reproducibility, and interpretability of the analysis. We develop and evaluate integrative GSEA methods, based on two‐stage procedures, which, for the first time, allow statistically efficient use of isoform‐specific expression from multiple RNA‐seq experiments. Through simulation and real data analysis, we show that our methods can greatly improve the performance in identifying essential gene sets compared to existing methods that can only use gene‐level expression.  相似文献
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