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[目的]探讨母婴依恋的代际传递性和从婴儿期到幼儿期跨时间的一致性和稳定性. [方法]对160对已经采用“陌生情境法”进行了母-婴依恋类型测评的健康母婴对,在儿童的幼儿期:1)采用成人依恋访谈问卷(Adult Attachment Interview Questionnaire,AAIQ)测查母亲自身幼年时期的依恋模式;2)采用儿童行为Q分类法(Waters&Deane's Attachment Q-set,AQS)测评幼儿与其母亲之间的依恋关系. [结果] 最终完成随访的母婴对有118对,随访率为73.8%.母亲与婴儿两者依恋类型之间一一对应的总对应率为:63.6%,其中安全型母亲与其婴儿的安全性之间的对应性最高,为86.2%;幼儿期安全型依恋占64.4%,不安全型依恋占35.6%,与婴儿期依恋安全性的分布基本一致.其中,安全型的婴儿中有89.7%在幼儿期仍为安全型;而不安全型的婴儿中有85.0%在幼儿期仍为不安全型,差异无统计学意义(x2 =0.569,P>0.05). [结论]母婴依恋存在代际传递性,母亲自身的依恋模式是影响母婴依恋关系的重要因素之一.儿童依恋存在跨时间跨情境的一致性和稳定性,婴儿依恋类型对幼儿期的依恋安全性有较高的预测效度.  相似文献
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In this paper we compare the educational attainment of adults who had relatively unhealthy parents when they were adolescents to those whose parents were relatively healthy during this time of their lives. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,556) to show that U.S. adolescents whose parents described their health as "fair" or "poor" at Wave 1 of the study were more likely to drop out of high school compared to those whose parents reported better levels of health. We do not observe any association between parental health and the likelihood of attending college among those who graduated from high school, however we do show that completing college (among college attendees) is more likely among those whose parents reported better health when they were adolescents. This association persists despite a wide range of statistical controls including socioeconomic status of the household, the physical and mental health status of the respondent, the grade point average of the respondent, the health behaviors of parents, as well as parental time investment. These findings add an important intergenerational component to research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and health.  相似文献
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This paper analyzes the decision to start smoking using data from the German Socio‐Economic Panel (GSOEP). Our focus is on the role that parental smoking behavior plays for children's smoking initiation. The data used are a combination of retrospective information on the age individuals started smoking and, by tracing back these individuals within the panel structure up to that point, information on characteristics at the age of smoking initiation. In contrast to the previous literature it is possible to control for the environment at the time of smoking onset that might have influenced the decision to start. Our preferred specification of a discrete time hazard model indicates that parental smoking significantly increases the offspring's hazard to start smoking. While this effect is most prominent for currently smoking parents, it is also found for parents who have given up smoking already. However, an ambiguous effect of the timing of parental smoking cessation is found, arguing against role‐model effects being a key determinant for smoking initiation. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
4.
This article analyses the role played by childhood circumstances, especially social and family background in explaining health status among older adults. We explore the hypothesis of an intergenerational transmission of health inequalities using the French part of SHARE. As the impact of both social background and parents' health on health status in adulthood represents circumstances independent of individual responsibility, this study allows us testing the existence in France of inequalities of opportunity in health related to family and social background. Empirically, our study relies on tests of stochastic dominance at first order and multivariate regressions, supplemented by a counterfactual analysis to evaluate the long‐lasting impact of childhood conditions on inequality in health. Allocating the best circumstances in both parents' socioeconomic status and parents' health reduces inequality in health by an impressive 57% using the Gini coefficient. The mother's social status has a direct effect on the health of her offspring. By contrast, the effect on descendant's health from their father's social status is indirect only, which goes through the descendant's social status as an adult. There is also a strong effect of the father vital status on health in adulthood, revealing a selection effect. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
5.
This study examined the intergenerational transmission of abuse among a sample of 681 teen, adult low, and adult high resource first-time mothers. Participants ranged in age from 14 to 36 years, with a mean of 20 years. Exposure to childhood emotional and physical abuse was associated with 6-month parenting behavior; but not parenting knowledge. Teen mothers, as opposed to adult mothers, had higher mean scores for exposure to childhood emotional and physical abuse. Adult high resource mothers reported lower mean scores on each abuse outcome than both teen and adult low resource mothers. For the total sample of mothers, as past exposure to emotional and physical abuse increased, maternal responsivity decreased, and opinions towards, and propensities for, abusive behavior increased.  相似文献
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This study assesses the relationship of patterns of relating between mothers and their preschool-aged children. Thirty-one families were used, and the mother and child participated in the Marschak Interaction Method Rating System (MIM-RS). Mothers also completed the Demographic Data Questionnaire. Correlations based upon the MIM-RS for mothers and their preschool-aged children produced significant results. Mother's ability to structure, challenge, engage, nurture and facilitate their child's regulatory processes positively related/influenced their preschool-age child's ability to demonstrate exploratory behaviors, reciprocity with their parent and to demonstrate regulatory behaviors. A parent who was not able to structure, challenge, engage, nurture and facilitate their child's regulatory processes produced a child who was not capable of exploring their environment, regulating their own self-regulatory processes or staying within a comfortable and communicative stance with their parent.  相似文献
7.
This paper examines the effects of parental health on cognitive and noncognitive development in Australian children. The underlying nationally representative panel data and a child fixed effects estimator are used to deal with unobserved heterogeneity. We find that only father's serious mental illness worsens selected cognitive and noncognitive skills of children. Maternal poor health also deteriorates some cognitive and noncognitive outcomes of children of lone mothers only. Our results demonstrate that either failing to account for parent–child fixed effects or using child noncognitive skills reported by parents could overestimate the harmful impact of poor parental health on child development.  相似文献
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