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目的了解云南省在校大学生的健康状况和保健需求,进一步充实人体健康公选课,提高大学生健康素养。方法采取整群抽样的方法应用自制问卷调查表对181名人体健康公选课的综合院校大学生进行问卷调查,采用百分率、χ2检验进行统计描述与分析,P〈0.05为差异有统计学意义。结果有健康保健欲望,想获得保健、急救、用药安全和预防传染病等知识的学生超过95%;希望了解的疾病种类较多;平衡膳食、睡眠正常、安排时间锻炼身体的人数均不超过50%;情绪积极乐观36.5%,情绪感觉一般51.9%,情绪悲观失望、易激动和焦虑13.8%;希望与更多人交往的占92.3%,不愿与人交往的占7.2%;与同学关系和睦的占91.2%,与同学关系一般的占8.3%;男女生在情绪和交往方面的比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=3.84,P〉0.05);男女生与同学关系方面的比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=6.69,P〈0.01);男女生在情绪积极乐观,情绪感觉一般,情绪悲观失望、易激动和焦虑三类情绪比较差异均有统计学意义(χ2=20.81、39.39,P均〈0.05)。结论云南高校学生有较强的保健愿望,希望了解疾病种类的较多,学校应加强在校学生健康素养的培养。  相似文献
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Solving the health care consumers’ (producers’) utility maximization (cost minimization) problem could entail the substitution of alternative care providers (factor inputs) when the relative out-of-pocket costs (factor prices) change, ceteris paribus. The conceptual advancement in this contribution is illustrated with an earlier paper (P. Deb and A. Holmes, Health Economics 7(4):347–362, 1998) on the economic relationship of physicians (M.D.s) and ‘other providers’ (Ph.D.s, other) in the US outpatient demand for mental health care services. Many aspects of our conceptual progress are insightful. Foremost, our conclusion on whether M.D. and non-M.D. providers of outpatient mental health care are economic complements or substitutes depends on the alternative measure of the substitution elasticity used. Second, when correctly measured the expenditure-minimizing substitutions among mental health providers can be useful policy decision guides for consumers covered under traditional indemnity insurance with deductibles or managed care plans with user co-payments. Finally, our conceptual clarification should motivate future investigators of health services demand (or use) and cost models to consider a wider conceptual foundation for assessing the structure and implications of provider relationships.
Albert A. OkunadeEmail:
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Published estimates of the healthcare coinsurance elasticity coefficient have typically relied on annual observations of individual healthcare expenditures even though health plan membership and expenditures are traditionally reported in monthly units and several studies have stressed the need for demand models to recognize the episodic nature of healthcare. Summing individual healthcare expenditures into annual observations complicates two common challenges of statistical inference, heteroscedasticity, and regressor endogeneity. This paper estimates the elasticity coefficient using a monthly panel data model that addresses the heteroscedasticity and endogeneity problems with relative ease. Healthcare claims data from employees of King County, Washington, during 2005 to 2011 were used to estimate the mean point elasticity coefficient: −0.314 (0.015 standard error) to −0.145 (0.015 standard error) depending on model specification. These estimates bracket the −0.2 point estimate (range: −0.22 to −0.17) derived from the famous Rand Health Insurance Experiment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
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Evidence on the impact of user costs on healthcare demand in ‘universal’ public National Health Services (NHS) is scarce. The changes in copayments and in the regulation of the provision of free patient transportation, introduced in early 2012 in Portugal, provide a natural experiment to evaluate that impact. However, those changes in user costs were accompanied with changes in the criteria that determine which patients are exempt from copayments, implying that simple comparisons of user rates would be biased. In this paper, we develop a new methodology to evaluate the impact of increases in direct and indirect user costs on the demand for emergency services (ES) in the presence of compositional changes in co‐payment exempt and non‐exempt populations. Our results show that the increase in copayments did not have an effect in moderating ES demand by paying users, but we find significant effects of the change in transport regulation. Thus, our results support the conclusion that indirect costs may be more important than direct costs in determining healthcare demand in NHS‐countries where copayments are small and wide exemption schemes are in place, especially for older patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
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