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1.
胰腺手术患者的围手术期血糖控制   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
目的探讨胰腺手术患者的围手术期血糖控制与手术并发症发生的相关性。方法回顾性分析1995年1月至2010年4月共412例行胰十二指肠切除术患者的临床资料,分析围手术期血糖控制及术后并发症发生情况。结果胰腺术后患者平均空腹血糖水平均高于正常,术后应用胰岛素可以有效控制血糖。术后空腹血糖〉8.3mmol/L的患者死亡率、术后胰漏、出血、感染等严重并发症的发生率(7.O%、23.7%、9.7%、15.1%)显著高于术后空腹血糖≤8.3mmol/L的患者(2.7%、11.9%、4.0%、6.6%)(P=0.037、P=0.002、P=0.020、P=0.005)。术后空腹血糖≤6.1mmol/L的患者死亡率和术后出血的发生率(6.2%、8.6%)显著高于术后空腹血糖6.1-8.3mmol/L的患者(0.7%、1.4%)(P=0.023、P=0.011)。术后空腹血糖≤6.1mmol/L的患者发生严重低血糖的情况显著增加(7.4%比0.7%,P=0.009)。结论通过术后持续静脉滴注葡萄糖+普通胰岛素治疗可以有效平稳控制血糖,实现围手术期预定目标下的血糖管理。胰腺手术围手术期的目标血糖定为6.1~8.3mmol/L是安全合理的,能够减少术后并发症和降低死亡率。  相似文献
2.
糖尿病胃肠道肿瘤患者术后肠外营养的血糖控制   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的探讨简单、有效的血糖控制模式。方法2001年1月~2009年1月行胃肠道肿瘤择期手术的糖尿病患者91例,随机分为两组,肠外营养混合胰岛素组和静脉胰岛素泵组。结果两组患者血糖异常例次和尿酮异常例次有显著性差异,两组患者平均每日胰岛素用量、肛门排气时间和住院时间有显著性差异。结论静脉胰岛素泵方法安全、有效、可靠、灵活,适应基层医院使用。  相似文献
3.
Multiple experiments in male Wistar rats were designed to clarify the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the mechanisms of oxidative stress-related diseases and toxicity-induced pathologies. In this particular report, 21 male Wistar rats were supplemented ad libitum with either As3+ or Cr3+ salts in drinking water to assess insulin secretion patterns in vivo and in vitro, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, liver damage, basal insulin, and glucose tolerance curves, among other parameters. Results were compared with a control group without any metal supplementation. The CrCl3 supplements were more invasive of metabolism and had a stronger effect on mitochondrial dysfunction than As3+, despite that both seem to use similar mechanisms of toxicity; viz.: binding to thiol or -SS- group in enzymes and proteins, and releasing oxidant species during their redox-cycling and metabolic activation processes, e.g., by cytochrome P450 in liver. Results support our aim to prove the influence of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction on glycemic control.  相似文献
4.
Objective. To compare the frequency of common symptoms and complications between African- and white American adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting, and to examine associations of these conditions with glycemic control. Design. Three hundred and four adults with type 2 diabetes participated in this cross-sectional analysis; 142 of whom were African-Americans. Patients were recruited from a family practice ambulatory care unit and a community health center. Results. Both male and female African-Americans had higher mean diastolic blood pressure and poorer metabolic control than their white counterparts. After adjustment for diabetes duration, glycosylated hemoglobin and diastolic blood pressure, African-American females were significantly more likely to experience constipation and hypertension but less likely to experience chest pain, claudication, peripheral neuropathy or have peripheral vascular disease. Among male subjects, African-Americans were significantly more likely to experience blurred vision and hypertension but less likely to have peripheral atherosclerotic disease. Poor glycemic control was more strongly associated with the occurrence of common diabetic symptoms in African-American subjects. Conclusions. Both African- and white Americans with type 2 diabetes are likely to experience a wide variety of symptoms and vascular complications. African-American subjects appear more likely than whites to experience symptoms related to glycemic control but less likely to have, or experience symptoms and complications of, cardiovascular disease. That nearly half of these subjects seen in a primary care setting had microalbuminuria suggests that vascular complications are likely to be present in the majority of adults with type 2 diabetes, even in these currently asymptomatic. These findings may have implications for screening and preventive strategies for the treatment of this disease.  相似文献
5.
6.

Objectives

Evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of independently or combined dietary and physical activity programs on the blood glucose values and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes, including participants aged 60 years and over.

Design

Systematic review.

Data source

PubMed/Medline database, with language restrictions. Papers published between 2010 and 2016 were included.

Study selection

A total of 30 randomised controlled trials were included that focused on physical activity and dietary interventions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and include participants aged 60 years and over.

Results

The selected articles have shown that the implementation of physical activity programs (aerobic, resistance, flexibility and combined exercises), and programs based on a higher intake of vegetables, grains, legumes, fruits, unsaturated fatty acids, as well as consumption of foods with low glycaemic index, calorie restriction, intake of probiotics, vitamin D supplementation and educational sessions about diabetes improves blood glucose levels, as well as the lipid profile, in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Conclusions

Physical activity and dietary programs are fundamental in the treatment and metabolic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus.  相似文献
7.
Hyperglycemia is associated with adverse outcomes in patients who are candidates for or underwent neurosurgical procedures. Specific concerns and settings that relate to these patients are preoperative glycemic control, intraoperative control, management in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU), and postoperative control. In each of these settings, physicians have to ensure appropriate glycemic control to prevent or minimize adverse events. The glycemic control is usually managed by a neurohospitalist in co-management with the neurosurgery team pre- and post-operatively, and by the neurocritical care team in the setting of NICU. In this review article, we outline current standards of care for neurosurgery patients with diabetes mellitus and/or and hyperglycemia and discuss results of most recent clinical trials. We highlight specific concerns with regards to glycemic controls in these patients including enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition, the issues of the transition to the outpatient care, and management of steroid-induced hyperglycemia. We also note lack of evidence in some important areas, and the need for more research addressing these gaps. Where possible, we provide suggestions how to manage these patients when there is no underlying guideline.  相似文献
8.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with regard to their glycemic control and lipid profile.

Methods: One hundred subjects with T2DM were recruited and given 4500 IU/day of vitamin D for 2 months. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid profile were measured pre- and postsupplementation.

Results: There was a significant increase in the mean value of 25(OH)D level after supplementation (baseline level 16 ± 5.3 ng/ml vs. after supplement level 49.2 ± 17.7 ng/ml, p < 0.05). Both FBG and HbA1c but not lipid profile were significantly decreased after supplementation. However, the univariate general linear model between 25(OH)D percentiles and lipid profile levels showed that diabetic subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (>61 ng/ml) had significantly lower levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in comparison to those in the low or middle percentiles. Furthermore, participants in a higher percentile had a significantly higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than those in the middle percentile. Lipid profile levels were not affected by the supplement except for triglycerides (TG) levels in females, which were significantly decreased.

Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial to diabetic subjects because it improved glycemic control. Diabetic subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (>61 ng/ml) had better lipid profiles.  相似文献

9.
Yogurt is a semisolid fermented milk product that originated centuries ago and is viewed as an essential food and important source of nutrients in the diet of humans. Over the last 30 years, overweight and obesity have become characteristic of Western and developing countries, which has led to deleterious health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and other chronic conditions. Recent epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that yogurt is involved in the control of body weight and energy homeostasis and may play a role in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes partly via the replacement of less healthy foods in the diet, its food matrix, the effect of specific nutrients such as calcium and protein on appetite control and glycemia, and alteration in gut microbiota. This review will discuss the specific properties that make yogurt a unique food among the dairy products, epidemiological and clinical evidence supporting yogurt's role in body weight, energy balance, and type 2 diabetes, including its potential mechanisms of action and gaps that need to be explored.

Key teaching points

  • ? Several epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested a beneficial effect of yogurt consumption in the control of body weight and energy homeostasis, although this remains controversial.

  • ? Yogurt possesses unique properties, including its nutritional composition; lactic acid bacteria, which may affect gut microbiota; and food matrix, which may have a potential role in appetite and glycemic control.

  • ? Potential mechanisms of action of yogurt include an increase in body fat loss, decrease in food intake and increase in satiety, decrease in glycemic and insulin response, altered gut hormone response, replacement of less healthy foods, and altered gut microbiota.

  • ? The relative energy and nutrient content and contribution of a standard portion of yogurt to the overall diet suggest that the percentage daily intake of these nutrients largely contributes to nutrient requirements and provides a strong contribution to the regulation of energy metabolism.

  相似文献
10.
目的 了解江苏省社区口服降糖药治疗的2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者的口服药(OAD)用药情况和血糖控制状况.方法 2013年12至2014年1月,抽取江苏省常熟市和淮安市清河区及淮安区3个调查点,对纳入基本公共卫生服务的2型糖尿病患者进行横断面研究,研究内容包括糖尿病问卷调查、糖尿病患者身体测量和糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)等实验室指标检测,将单用OAD治疗的2型糖尿病患者纳入研究.结果 单用OAD患者12 318例,平均年龄为(62.97±9.73)岁,平均病程为(6.23±5.18)年,平均HbA1c(7.90士1.80)%,HbA1c达标率34.80%.口服降糖药物使用单药治疗、二联用药比例较高,分别为55.26%和41.93%,三联及以上用药组合比例较少,仅为2.81%;单药治疗中,应用较多的为双胍类(41.77%)、磺脲类(38.39%)和格列奈类(12.49%);联合治疗中双胍类联合磺脲类者为65.85%,双胍类联合格列奈类者为15.48%,其他类为18.67%.单药、二联、三联及以上治疗方案HbA1c达标率分别为39.97%、29.04%及18.79%.结论 在中国应用口服药的T2DM患者中血糖控制达标率低,应进一步加强糖尿病管理,及时改变治疗方案,积极开展综合措施有效改善患者血糖控制状况.  相似文献
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