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WHO reform has become a perennial subject of debate that has seen familiar issues raised time and again by incumbent director-generals and member states. This paper begins by reflecting on the distinct nature of WHO reform debates since the 1990s and the global factors behind the pressures to change. It then argues for a shift in focus, from fixing a single UN organization, to the collective health needs of a rapidly globalizing world. The achievement of effective global health governance will require more fundamental changes, beginning with recognition of the shared responsibility for reform. The challenge in the twenty first century will require an even greater willingness to delegate authority and resources to a supranational entity. The compromise may be that the mandate and powers of a global health organization may need to be more carefully circumscribed, but more meaningful in terms of effectively delivering the essential functions needed to protect and promote health in a globalized world.  相似文献
This article takes a historical perspective on the changing position of WHO in the global health architecture over the past two decades.  相似文献
目的探讨中国卫生检疫在全球卫生治理背景下的发展策略。方法分析传染病在中国和全球间的互动和影响,以及全球卫生治理的必要性,从全球视野和体系建设、健康促进、卫生公平等方面探讨卫生检疫的未来发展趋势。结果中国加入全球化进程导致传染病风险具有全球化特征,全球卫生治理是适应全球传染病控制的有效进路。中国卫生检疫在跨国传染病防控中起到了重要作用。结论中国卫生检疫应从全球理念出发进行战略和机制调整,加大多部门、多组织参与的平台建设,促进全球监测和控制体系建设步伐,同时充分利用健康促进和公平促进更好的发挥传染病防控职能,以在未来的全球卫生中更好的发挥自己的作用。  相似文献
The public health and development communities understand clearly the need to integrate anti-poverty efforts with HIV/AIDS programs. This article reports findings about the impact of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process on Malawi’s National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework (NSF). In this article we ask, how does the PRSP process support NSF accountability, participation, access to information, funding, resource planning and allocation, monitoring, and evaluation?  相似文献
There is an emerging research agenda to analyse empirically the forces driving changes in global health governance. This study applies analytical tools from international relations research to explain the formation of international health regimes. The study utilizes two explanatory perspectives: individual leadership, and the interests of key non-state actors in the formation process, using the case of the formation of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) from 1995 to 1999. The case study is based on material from interviews with key actors, an archival review of documents from the Children’s Vaccine Initiative (CVI), and published literature. Findings show that the regime formation process was initiated by individuals who were primarily affiliated to scientific communities and who led to the World Bank and the Gates Foundation becoming champions of a new coordinating mechanism for new vaccine introduction. Negotiations in the regime formation process were between a small group of founding agencies with divergent interests regarding immunization priorities. The case also sheds light on the authority of the WHO and the resources of the Gates Foundation in driving the process towards the final structure of the alliance. The paper discusses the potential contribution of the international relations approach compared to policy research as a way of understanding the institutional dynamics of global health, particularly in respect of relations between countries and non-state actors.  相似文献
随着慢性病在非洲的崛起,其疾病谱发生了变迁,与传染病同为疾病双负担。这一态势具有社会文化的复杂性和应对的长期性两个重要特征,挑战与机遇并存,也使得中国参与非洲卫生治理有了更多可能。本文在回顾中国对非医疗援助与合作历史后,发现慢性病领域尚未受到关注。在重新审视中国参与非洲卫生治理意义后,发现参与非洲慢性病治理挑战重重,但可积极争取主动权,可使中国摆脱西方后继者的身份陷阱和西方话语权障碍。同时,树立正确的利义观,辩证认识参与非洲慢性病治理的积极意义和潜在市场价值。因此,中国应在认识上、行动上和文化互补上取得统一,超越单纯的援助论、合作论,夯实学理基础,探讨更多可能。  相似文献
全球化进程使各国将全球卫生治理作为重要战略关切,作为新兴国家代表的巴西、俄罗斯、印度、中国、南非这五个金砖国家(BRICS)在全球卫生治理领域发挥着日益重要的作用。本文比较和分析了金砖国家的卫生外交政策及其参与全球卫生治理的行动,总结了金砖国家参与全球卫生治理的特点及可供中国借鉴的经验,同时提出了作为多边合作机制的金砖国家在全球卫生领域中所面临的挑战。  相似文献

Since 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provided the framework for global development efforts transforming the field now known as global health. The MDGs both reflected and contributed to shaping a normative global health agenda. In the field of global health, the role of the state is largely considered to have diminished; however, this paper reasserts states as actors in the conceptualisation and institutionalisation of the MDGs, and illustrates how states exerted power and engaged in the MDG process. States not only sanctioned the MDGs through their heads of states endorsing the Millennium Declaration, but also acted more subtly behind the scenes supporting, enabling, and/or leveraging other actors, institutions and processes to conceptualise and legitimize the MDGs. Appreciating the MDGs’ role in the conceptualisation of global health is particularly relevant as the world transitions to the MDGs’ successor, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs’ influence, impact and importance remains to be seen; however, to understand the future of global health and how actors, particularly states, can engage to shape the field, a deeper sense of the MDGs’ legacy and how actors engaged in the past is helpful.  相似文献
全球化对健康产生了广泛而深刻的影响,挑战了原有的国际卫生体系,推动了全球卫生概念的提出,开拓了全球卫生治理的新局面。经济合作与发展组织中的七个国家已经发布并实施了国家全球卫生战略。本文比较研究了这些国家出台全球卫生战略的背景、目标利益,指导价值理念、重点领域及战略的制定过程等,并对七国战略的共同点及不同特色进行了总结提炼,发现尊重和维护健康权、积极承担国际责任并发展合作伙伴的能力是共同的价值理念;维护和改善本国人民的健康并为改善全球健康做出贡献、促进国家利益的实现是共同的目标;基于本国比较优势满足发展中国家卫生合作的需求是确定重点领域的关键;加强全球卫生治理、影响健康的全球治理,以及影响全球的卫生治理的思想贯穿战略的始终;多部门和全社会参与战略制订的过程。在借鉴上述国家全球卫生战略核心思想和经验的基础上,提出对中国制订国家全球卫生战略的建议。  相似文献
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