首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   179篇
  完全免费   30篇
  预防医学   209篇
  2022年   4篇
  2021年   5篇
  2020年   11篇
  2019年   19篇
  2018年   20篇
  2017年   12篇
  2016年   17篇
  2015年   10篇
  2014年   11篇
  2013年   43篇
  2012年   13篇
  2011年   13篇
  2010年   2篇
  2009年   12篇
  2008年   4篇
  2007年   2篇
  2006年   4篇
  2004年   1篇
  2003年   3篇
  2000年   1篇
  1999年   1篇
  1998年   1篇
排序方式: 共有209条查询结果,搜索用时 250 毫秒
1.
This one-year follow-up study (n = 130 at baseline, n =2745 at follow-up, aged 45–74 years) examined the relationship of patients’ perceptions of coronary heart disease (CHD) and illness-related factors with global health status and global quality of life (QOL) ratings. The independent variables were CHD history (myocardial infarction, revascularisation), CHD severity (use of nitrates, CHD risk factors and co-morbidities) and illness perceptions. In multivariate regression analysis, CHD history and severity explained 13% of variance in global health status and 8% in global QOL ratings at the baseline. Illness perceptions increased the share of explained variance by 18% and 16% respectively. In the follow-up, illness perceptions explained a significant but modest share of variance in change in health status and QOL when baseline health status and QOL and CHD severity were adjusted for more symptoms being attributed to CHD, severe perceived consequences of CHD, as well as a weak belief in the controllability of CHD were related to poor global health status and QOL ratings. In structural path models associations of CHD severity factors were mediated by illness perceptions. The association of disease severity with dependent variables was weaker after controlling for illness perceptions. Cognitive representations of CHD contribute to both global health status and QOL ratings and they also mediate the associations between CHD severity and well-being. No gender differences were found in associations of illness perceptions with health status or QOL ratings.  相似文献
2.
Global urbanization and impact on health   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Nearly half the world's population now lives in urban settlements. Cities offer the lure of better employment, education, health care, and culture; and they contribute disproportionately to national economies. However, rapid and often unplanned urban growth is often associated with poverty, environmental degradation and population demands that outstrip service capacity. These conditions place human health at risk. Reliable urban health statistics are largely unavailable throughout the world. Disaggregated intra-urban health data, i.e., for different areas within a city, are even more rare. Data that are available indicate a range of urban health hazards and associated health risks: substandard housing, crowding, air pollution, insufficient or contaminated drinking water, inadequate sanitation and solid waste disposal services, vector-borne diseases, industrial waste, increased motor vehicle traffic, stress associated with poverty and unemployment, among others. Local and national governments and multilateral organizations are all grappling with the challenges of urbanization. Urban health risks and concerns involve many different sectors, including health, environment, housing, energy, transportation, urban planning, and others. Two main policy implications are highlighted: the need for systematic and useful urban health statistics on a disaggregated, i.e., intra-urban, basis, and the need for more effective partnering across sectors. The humanitarian and economic imperative to create livable and sustainable cities must drive us to seek and successfully overcome challenges and capitalize on opportunities. Good urban planning and governance, exchange of best practice models and the determination and leadership of stakeholders across disciplines, sectors, communities and countries will be critical elements of success.  相似文献
3.
Indoor air pollution (IAP) from household use of biomass and coal is a leading environmental health risk in many developing nations. Much of the initial research on household energy technology overlooked the complex interactions of technological, behavioral, economic, and infrastructural factors that determine the success of environmental health interventions. Consequently, despite enormous interest in reducing the large and inequitable risks associated with household energy use in international development and global health, there is limited empirical research to form the basis for design and delivery of effective interventions. We used data from four poor provinces in China (Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi) to examine the linkages among technology, user knowledge and behavior, and access and infrastructure in exposure to IAP from household energy use. We conclude that broad health risk education is insufficient for successful risk mitigation when exposure behaviors are closely linked to day-to-day activities of households such as cooking and heating, or have other welfare implications, and hence cannot be simply stopped. Rather, there should be emphasis on the economic and infrastructure determinants of access to technology, as well as the details of behaviors that affect exposure. Better understanding of technology-behavior interface would also allow designing technological interventions that account for, and are robust to, behavioral factors or to provide individuals and households with alternative behaviors. Based on the analysis, we present technological and behavioral interventions for these four Chinese provinces.  相似文献
4.
BACKGROUND: Global environmental health has emerged as a critical topic for environmental health researchers and practitioners. Estimates of the environmental contribution of total worldwide disease burden range from 25 to 33%. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed grants funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) during 2005-2007 to evaluate the costs and scientific composition of the global environmental health portfolio, with the ultimate aim of strengthening global environmental health research partnerships. METHODS/RESULTS: We examined NIEHS grant research databases to identify the global environmental health portfolio. In the past 3 fiscal years (2005-2007), the NIEHS funded 57 scientific research projects in 37 countries, at an estimated cost of $30 million. Metals such as arsenic, methylmercury, and lead are the most frequently studied toxic agents, but a wide range of stressors, routes of exposure, and agents are addressed in the portfolio. CONCLUSIONS: The portfolio analysis indicates that there is a firm foundation of research activities upon which additional global environmental health partnerships could be encouraged. Current data structures could be strengthened to support more automated analysis of grantee information.  相似文献
5.
全球开始关注卫生体系加强   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
在过去很长一段时间内,某一具体疾病是主要研究对象,但近几十年特别是2005年以来,许多组织开始参与全球卫生研究并关注卫生体系加强。本文对这一关注产生的原因及方式展开研究。研究采用了过程追踪的定性方法,并对政治层面引发和限制其关注的因素进行分析。研究发现加强卫生体系之所以得到广泛关注,主要是因为:全球卫生的参与者担心卫生体系方面的问题会影响千年发展目标的实现,并担心全球卫生行动可能会给国家卫生体系带来负面影响。此外,许多全球卫生组织已经意识到,薄弱的卫生体系会成为实现组织既定目标的瓶颈。尽管目前有众多的参与者支持加强卫生体系,但这些行动者还未形成有凝聚力的政策联盟。此外,加强卫生体系的概念不清晰,而且加强卫生体系的证据很薄弱。由于全球金融危机、全球卫生政策的不确定性以及一些行动者暂时性地支持等,对加强卫生体系的关注是否具有可持续性,目前尚未有定论。  相似文献
6.
Compensation for avian influenza cleanup   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
7.
Background: The growing health risks associated with greenhouse gas emissions highlight the need for new energy policies that emphasize efficiency and low-carbon energy intensity.Objectives: We assessed the relationships among electricity use, coal consumption, and health outcomes.Methods: Using time-series data sets from 41 countries with varying development trajectories between 1965 and 2005, we developed an autoregressive model of life expectancy (LE) and infant mortality (IM) based on electricity consumption, coal consumption, and previous year’s LE or IM. Prediction of health impacts from the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) integrated air pollution emissions health impact model for coal-fired power plants was compared with the time-series model results.Results: The time-series model predicted that increased electricity consumption was associated with reduced IM for countries that started with relatively high IM (> 100/1,000 live births) and low LE (< 57 years) in 1965, whereas LE was not significantly associated with electricity consumption regardless of IM and LE in 1965. Increasing coal consumption was associated with increased IM and reduced LE after accounting for electricity consumption. These results are consistent with results based on the GAINS model and previously published estimates of disease burdens attributable to energy-related environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution and water and sanitation.Conclusions: Increased electricity consumption in countries with IM < 100/1,000 live births does not lead to greater health benefits, whereas coal consumption has significant detrimental health impacts.  相似文献
8.
In this paper, I examine the use of performance-based financing to scale-up HIV testing in men who have sex with men, or MSM, by global health initiatives in China. This mechanism, which ties financing directly to the achievement of targets and indicators, assures that measurable results are produced from health interventions and accounts for financial spending. On the one hand, its adoption into HIV programming in China articulates with broader shifts in global health that place currency on particular forms of evidence. At the same time, performance-based financing reshapes how HIV interventions are carried out and what counts in these programmes. The suturing of financing to outputs directs what gets counted and how, and as a consequence leads to the production of measurable results as an end in and of themselves. Based on 22 months of ethnographic research carried out in China, I explore the effects of this mechanism and, in doing so, ask what gets left out in the pursuit of evidence. In particular, I demonstrate how the demand for outputs undermines HIV prevention in MSM, thus risking the very lives these interventions are intended to save.  相似文献
9.
The MMR – maternal mortality ratio – has risen from obscurity to become a major global health indicator, even appearing as an indicator of progress towards the global Sustainable Development Goals. This has happened despite intractable challenges relating to the measurement of maternal mortality. Even after three decades of measurement innovation, maternal mortality data are widely presumed to be of poor quality, or, as one leading measurement expert has put it, ‘guilty until proven innocent’. This paper explores how and why leading epidemiologists, demographers and statisticians have devoted the better part of the last three decades to producing ever more sophisticated and expensive surveys and mathematical models of globally comparable MMR estimates. The development of better metrics is publicly justified by the need to know which interventions save lives and at what cost. We show, however, that measurement experts’ work has also been driven by the need to secure political priority for safe motherhood and by donors’ need to justify and monitor the results of investment flows. We explore the many effects and consequences of this measurement work, including the eclipsing of attention to strengthening much-needed national health information systems. We analyse this measurement work in relation to broader political and economic changes affecting the global health field, not least the incursion of neoliberal, business-oriented donors such as the World Bank and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation whose institutional structures have introduced new forms of administrative oversight and accountability that depend on indicators.  相似文献
10.
This paper explores how an array of HIV epidemic responders became embroiled in producing quantitative evidence for HIV interventions in India. Based upon extensive ethnographic fieldwork in Karnataka State, I examine the life history of the Gates-funded AIDS initiative in India known as Avahan as a case study to consider the social and political implications of large-scale, standardizing knowledge regimes enacted in the era of global health. Specifically, I analyze a sample of the key material artifacts that are implicated in the production of standardized knowledge in an attempt to illuminate the workings of what I refer to as ‘evidentiary sovereignty’. I argue that documents, forms, and other paperwork used to generate evidence in global health interventions neither merely reflect expert knowledge nor convey information about scientific standards but, rather, are integral to the re-instantiation of sovereignty. The effects of evidentiary sovereignty not only narrow the aperture of global health interventions to overlook the on-the-ground realities that shape health problems, but they also transform the very ground upon which communities responding to HIV epidemics conceive of and enact politics. As highly HIV-affected communities struggle with the bureaucratic demands of intensive form-filling and query agreed upon standards and systems of classification, a form of politicization of knowledge unfurls that pertains to the documents themselves.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号