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1.
德国医院新标准新概念   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
本文评述了德国医院最新标准VDI 2176中的"医院建筑设施--供热、通风与空气调节",特别对VDI标准的新概念、最新定义的卫生级别、供热、通风与空气调节新措施和手术室验收进行了介绍,并对标准中这些措施与感染控制问题的关系进行了讨论.  相似文献
2.
目的研究羧酸酯酶在不同品系德国小蠊中的活性以及其在有机磷杀虫剂抗性形成中的作用。方法以对有机磷杀虫剂敏感品系(SS)及采自北京市宣武区(XW)、昌平区(CP)、顺义区(SY)和石景山区(SJS)的德国小蠊野外品系为试虫材料,利用生物测定、生化分析及增效剂试验等方法研究羧酸酯酶与德国小蠊对有机磷杀虫剂抗性的关系。结果增效剂TPP对马拉硫磷、敌敌畏的增效比在敏感品系中分别为1.86和1.51倍,TPP对马拉硫磷的增效比在XW、CP、SY和SJS品系中分别为5.79、20.08、15.26和4.74倍;TPP对敌敌畏的增效比在XW、CP、SY和SJS品系中分别为2.00、1.67、2.16和4.81倍。德国小蠊野外品系与敏感品系羧酸酯酶的米氏常数(Km)和最大反应速度(Vmax)之间差异有统计学意义,敏感品系羧酸酯酶的Km、Vmax分别为0.1580mmol/L和58.4225μmol/(mg pro·min);野外品系(XW、CP、SY和SJS)羧酸酯酶的Km、Vmax分别为0.1279、0.1071、0.1080、0.1095mmol/L和307.2550、338.5755、340.3300、212.4570μmol/(mg pro·min),2个品系的羧酸酯酶对马拉硫磷和敌敌畏的抑制作用也不同,2种有机磷药剂对敏感品系的抑制中量150分别为17.64mmol/L和0.91μmol/L,对野外品系(XW、CP、SY和SJS)的150分别为80.48、35.49、83.24、82.29mmol/L和15.35、7.89、11.52、8.60μmol/L。结论羧酸酯酶解毒代谢活性的增加是德国小蠊对有机磷杀虫剂产生抗性的机制之一。  相似文献
3.
目的了解德国小蠊的抗药性与磷酸酯酶和谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GSTs)生化特性变化的关系,以初步揭示其抗性机制。方法参照Bessey等的方法测定磷酸酯酶活性与动力学参数Km和Vmax。参照Clark、Kao和Booth等的方法测定GSTs活性与动力学参数Km和Vmax。结果敏感品系与野生品系德国小蠊的酸性磷酸酯酶活力分别为0.98和26.95nmol/(只·30min),比活力分别为1.45和1.59μmol/(mg pro·30min),Km值分别是26.14和0.89mmol/L,Vmax值分别是3.33和0.85nmol/(mg pro·30min);敏感品系与野生品系德国小蠊的碱性磷酸酯酶活力为(0.03±0.00)和(0.28±0.06)nmol/(只·30min),比活力分别为(0.33±0.00)和(0.37±0.00)μmol/(mg pro·30min),Km值分别是70.38和61.24mmol/L,Vmax值分别是16.20和14.00nmol/(mg pro·30min);敏感品系与野生品系德国小蠊GETs活力分别是0.13和0.47nmol/min,比活力分别为8.94和17.37nmol/(mg pro·30min);Km值分别是2.08和5.81mmol/L,Vmax值分别是0.08和0.17nmot/min。结论磷酸酯酶与GSTs在野外品系的抗性形成过程中起一定作用。  相似文献
4.
德国医疗卫生服务对我国医疗卫生事业发展的启示   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
文章从硬件和软件两方面入手,分析了德国医院在医院设计建设和医疗质量管理上的特点,查找了我国在相关领域存在的问题,为我国医疗改革和医院建设提供了一些启迪。  相似文献
5.
The evidence for the role of smoking, carbon monoxide (CO), and nicotine in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is evaluated critically. Positive statistical correlations between smoking and CVD obtained in several epidemiological studies demonstrate the need to investigate possible causative biological mechanisms. Ambient concentrations of CO influence COHb levels in humans. Correlations are reported between the COHb level and CVD, but we are far from having clearcut evidence of a public health risk from ambient CO concentrations. Assuming that a major part in the etiology of CVD is the development of arteriosclerosis, investigations in this direction have been performed with CO and nicotine in animal experiments. Neither substance has any influence, comparable to human arteriosclerosis, on the development of CVD.  相似文献
6.
Fertility control of male rabbits was achieved by daily oral administration of STS 557 (17-cyanomethyl-17β-hydroxy-estra-4.9(10)-diene-3-one) over a period of 8 weeks. In doses of 10 and 20 mg STS 557 per animal per day, fertility inhibition was accompanied by a decrease of mean number of mounts and ejaculations. Furthermore, semen volume, number of sperm per ejaculate, and sperm motility were reduced. At a dose of 5 mg STS 557 per day, male sterility was associated with reduction of sperm motility and semen fructose content. Libido, semen volume, sperm number, and sialic acid content in semen remained unaffected. Development of male contraceptives on the basis of chronic progestin treatment without concomitant androgen supplement may thus be possible.  相似文献
7.
 The aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of organochlorine compounds of environmental-medical relevance in biological materials from refugees with regard to their countries of origin and to compare these concentrations with the internal exposure of the German general population. Methods: During medical examination after entry to Germany specimens could be taken from the refugees to determine the following parameters of biological monitoring: 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE-P), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB-P), pentachlorophenol (PCP-P) and the beta- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexanes (β-HCH-P, γ-HCH-P) in plasma and the excretion of chlorophenols (4-MCP-U, 2,4-DCP-U, 2,5-DCP-U, 2,4,5-TCP-U, 2,4,6-TCP-U, 2,3,4,5-TeCP-U, 2,3,5,6-TeCP-U) in urine. One hundred and three men (13 from former Yugoslavia, 29 from the former USSR, 33 Africans and 28 Asians) ranging from 16 to 53 years of age (median 27 years) were investigated. Thirty four male Germans without occupational exposure to these substances and a similar age structure (age 25–36 years; median 26 years) served as a control group. Results: A much higher level of internal exposure was found for the DDT meta bolite, DDE, for those persons from Asia, the former USSR and Africa compared with the German controls (medians: 16.9 μg/l, 11.9 μg/l, 10.9 μg/l and 1.1 μg/l). The levels of PCB in plasma were below the detection limit in the majority of refugees. In the control group, however, the PCB levels were higher (ΣPCB: median: 2.1 μg/l, maximum: 13.3 μg/l). The highest β-HCH concentrations, up to a maximum of 15.5 μg/l, were detected in the persons from the former USSR and Asia. The five groups do not differ with regard to internal exposure to PCP and γ-HCH. Renal excretion of 4-MCP, 2,4-DCP and TeCP did not differ between the five groups. The concentrations of 2,5-DCP in urine, however, were significantly lower in the Germans than the refugees from the four regions investigated. The median for the Germans was 3.0 μg/l and for the refugees between 10.8 and 14.7 μg/l. Also the levels of 2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,6-TCP in urine were lower in the German controls than in the men from the former USSR, Africa and Asia. Conclusions: Organochlorine compounds exist worldwide due to their extensive use. There are, however, regional differences for the various substance groups, which during biological monitoring are seen in the different background exposures of the general population. Particularly characteristic are markedly higher levels of DDE in plasma from the refugees compared with the German population. Received: 11 July 1996/Accepted: 16 September 1996  相似文献
8.
Mean serum total cholesterol levels appear to be higher in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) than in the United States (US) while coronary heart disease death rates are lower. The study examined possible factors for the difference including possible differences in laboratory methodology. Cross-sectional data from the first two waves of the German National Health Surveys (1984–1986 and 1987–1989; n = 9709) and from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1976–1980; n = 7832) were compared for men and women 25–69 years of age. The influence of age, body mass index, diet, cigarette smoking, education, income, use of oral contraceptives or antihypertensive agents, alcohol consumption and potential differences in laboratory measurement were explored using multiple regression techniques separately for men and women for ages 25–39, 40–59 and 60–69 years of age. Overall ages, unadjusted mean total cholesterol levels were higher in German than US men (6.02 vs. 5.64 mmol/l) and in German than US women (6.04 vs. 5.80 mmol/l) as were HDL cholesterol levels (men: 1.30 vs 1.14 mmol/l; women: 1.65 vs. 1.38 mmol/l). Adjusting for lifestyle factors explained, on the average, 40% of the differences in mean total cholesterol of which half or 20% was accounted for by adjusting for alcohol intake. Adjusting for possible laboratory differences explained, on the average, an additional 30% of the differences. Frequency of alcohol intake was the most important factor in explaining differences in mean HDL cholesterol levels. Adjustment for differences in alcohol intake had negligible effects on reducing the differences in mean non-HDL cholesterol.  相似文献
9.
After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 the former communist countries of central and eastern Europe underwent substantial social and economic changes that had a major impact on health. The situation of the former German Democratic Republic was unique in that its existing institutions were replaced rapidly and it was quickly integrated economically with the West. This study describes recent trends in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases in East and West Germany before and after unification using routine data from 1980 onwards. Substantial differences in morbidity and mortality resulting from infectious diseases were observed between East and West Germany. These seem to be the complex result of societal and health system differences in both parts of Germany before unification, differing population dynamics and health behaviours, and an increasing westernisation in the eastern part of Germany during recent years.  相似文献
10.
The German Environmental Survey was conducted for the third time in 1998 (GerES III). The probability sample of about 4800 subjects was selected to be representative for the German population with regard to region (East-/West-Germany), community size, age (18 to 69 years) and gender. Blood samples were taken from each study participant and questionnaires were used to get exposure-related information. Cadmium, lead, mercury, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p, p'-DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-180) were analysed in whole blood to document the extent, distribution, and determinants of exposure of the general population to these substances. The geometric means of Cd, Pb, and Hg in blood amounted to 0.44, 31, and 0.58 microgram/l, respectively. Smokers showed a Cadmium level of 1.1 micrograms/l and non-smokers a level of 0.28 microgram/l. The geometric mean of lead was higher in the blood of males than of females (36 micrograms/l vs. 26 micrograms/l). The concentration of mercury in blood depends on fish consumption and the number of teeth with amalgam fillings. The mean concentrations of HCB and p, p'-DDE in blood were 0.44 microgram/l and 1.6 micrograms/l, respectively. In East-Germany (the former GDR) the DDE concentration in blood was more than twice as high as in West-Germany. Geometric means for PCB were 0.42, 0.68 and 0.44 microgram/l for PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180, respectively. A marked increase of HCB, DDE and PCB levels with age could be observed. alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH could be detected in 1.7% and 5.2% of the samples only. beta-HCH was quantified in 34% of the samples with a 95th percentile of 0.5 microgram/l.  相似文献
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