首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   105篇
  完全免费   13篇
  预防医学   118篇
  2019年   1篇
  2018年   3篇
  2017年   6篇
  2016年   5篇
  2015年   11篇
  2014年   7篇
  2013年   5篇
  2012年   3篇
  2011年   14篇
  2010年   5篇
  2009年   12篇
  2008年   10篇
  2007年   6篇
  2006年   4篇
  2005年   4篇
  2004年   1篇
  2003年   3篇
  2002年   2篇
  2001年   5篇
  2000年   2篇
  1999年   3篇
  1998年   2篇
  1997年   2篇
  1995年   1篇
  1990年   1篇
排序方式: 共有118条查询结果,搜索用时 62 毫秒
1.
OBJECTIVE: Ethnic minority patients often receive poorer quality care and have worse outcomes than white patients, yet practice-based approaches to reduce such disparities have not been identified. We determined whether practice-initiated quality improvement (QI) interventions for depressed primary care patients improve care across ethnic groups and reduce outcome disparities. STUDY SETTING: The sample consists of 46 primary care practices in 6 U.S. managed care organizations; 181 clinicians; 398 Latinos, 93 African Americans, and 778 white patients with probable depressive disorder. STUDY DEIGN: Matched practices were randomized to usual care or one of two QI programs that trained local experts to educate clinicians; nurses to educate, assess, and follow-up with patients; and psychotherapists to conduct Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Patients and physicians selected treatments. Interventions featured modest accommodations for minority patients (e.g., translations, cultural training for clinicians). DATA EXTRACTION METHODS: Multilevel logistic regression analyses assessed intervention effects within and among ethnic groups. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At baseline, all ethnic groups Latino, African American, white) had low to moderate rates of appropriate care and the interventions significantly improved appropriate care at six months (by 8-20 percentage points) within each ethnic group, with no significant difference in response by ethnic group. The interventions significantly decreased the likelihood that Latinos and African Americans would report probable depression at months 6 and 12; the white intervention sample did not differ from controls in reported probable depression at either follow-up. While the intervention significantly improved the rate of employment for whites and not for minorities, precision was low for comparing intervention response on this outcome. It is important to note that minorities remained less likely to have appropriate care and more likely to be depressed than white patients. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of quality improvement interventions that have modest accommodations for minority patients can improve quality of care for whites and underserved minorities alike, while minorities may be especially likely to benefit clinically. Further research needs to clarify whether employment benefits are limited to whites and if so, whether this represents a difference in opportunities. Quality improvement programs appear to improve quality of care without increasing disparities, and may offer an approach to reduce health disparities.  相似文献
2.
3.
西藏不同海拔地区妊娠期高血压疾病的调查分析   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
目的:了解西藏不同海拔地区妊娠期高血压疾病(HDCP)患病情况,为防治HDCP提供依据。方法:对1998~2004年西藏不同海拔地区的13所省市级医院住院分娩的1160例发生HDCP的产妇及其围产儿情况进行回顾性调查分析。结果:不同海拔地区HDCP住院患病率差异有显著性意义(P<0.05);不同海拔地区移居汉族与世居藏族之间HDCP住院患病率差异有显著性意义(P<0.05)。结论:西藏地区HDCP住院患病率随居住地区海拔升高有明显增高趋势,汉族孕产妇HDCP患病率高于藏族孕产妇,海拔升高增加HDCP孕产妇及其围产儿病死率。  相似文献
4.
This paper argues that substantive and sustainable population-wide improvements in physical activity can be achieved only through the large scale adoption and implementation of policies and practices that make being active the default choice and remaining inactive difficult. Meta-volition refers to the volition and collective agency of early adopter leaders who implement such changes in their own organizations to drive productivity and health improvements. Leaders, themselves, are motivated by strong incentives to accomplish their organizational missions. The meta-volition model (MVM) specifies a cascade of changes that may be sparked by structural integration of brief activity bouts into organizational routine across sectors and types of organizations. MVM builds upon inter-disciplinary social ecological change models and frameworks such as diffusion of innovations, social learning and social marketing. MVM is dynamic rather than static, integrating biological influences with psychological factors, and socio-cultural influences with organizational processes. The model proposes six levels of dissemination triggered by organizational marketing to early adopter leaders carried out by “sparkplugs,” boisterous leaders in population physical activity promotion: initiating (leader–leader), catalyzing (organizational–individual), viral marketing (individual–organizational), accelerating (organizational–organizational), anchoring (organizational–community) and institutionalizing (community–individual). MVM embodies public–private partnership principles, a collective investment in the high cost of achieving and maintaining active lifestyles.  相似文献
5.
Objectives: Prenatal and postpartum depression are significant mental health problems that can have negative effects on mother-infant interactions. We examined the relationships among mother-infant interactions, depressive symptoms, life events, and breastfeeding of low-income urban African American and Hispanic women in primary care settings. Methods: Participants were 89 African American and Hispanic women who were part of a larger mental health intervention study conducted in community health centers. Questionnaire data on depression, as well as negative and positive life events, were collected during pregnancy and at three-months postpartum, while mother-infant interaction observations and breastfeeding practice were only collected at three-months postpartum. Results: The ratings of maternal behavior for ‘depressed’ mothers did not differ from ‘nondepressed’ mothers. Except for gaze aversion behavior, infants' behavior while interacting with their mothers did not differ by maternal depression level. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that maternal positive life events positively predicted infant interactional summary ratings, while maternal negative life events were inversely associated with maternal interactional summary ratings. Conclusions: To improve services in primary care, perinatal screenings for depression can help identify those women most at risk. When follow-up use of structured diagnostic instruments is not possible or cost-effective, clinician assessment of severity of depression will determine women with clinical levels of depression. Reducing negative life events is beyond the control of women or clinicians but cognitive interventions to help women focus on positive life events can reduce the deleterious effects of depression on mothers and their infants.  相似文献
6.
青海省少数民族贫困大学生心理健康状况调查   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
目的掌握民族贫困大学生心理健康状况,为心理健康教育提供科学依据。方法运用SCL-90自评量表对562名少数民族贫困大学生进行测查,并与全国常模和本省贫困大学生进行对比。结果调查组学生心理健康水平总均分(1.85±0.53)低于全国常模(1.44±0.42),且两者有显著性差异(P〈0.01);但与本省贫困大学生(1.84±0.52)无差异(P〈0.05)。结论高校应高度重视和加强民族贫困大学生的心理健康教育。  相似文献
7.
8.
Much has been written about the importance of involving service users in the research process. Far less is available about the experience of involvement from the perspective of service users themselves. The present paper is a joint account by service users and researchers of a service users' advisory group set up to support and advise a project to evaluate diabetes services in Bradford, UK. The establishment of a separate advisory group for service users is, to our knowledge, an innovative approach to lay involvement within mainstream National Health Service (NHS)-based research. Factors that contributed to the group's success included personal contact, continuity of membership and integration into the management structure of the project. Also valued were the confidence in numbers which membership of the group gave, and the opportunity to meet and discuss issues away from the formal and somewhat intimidating atmosphere of the project's steering group. Aside from the personal value to participants and any impact on the quality of research outcomes, wider benefits included the ability to share knowledge with others and gain greater intercultural understanding.  相似文献
9.
民族地区妇幼卫生工作绩效考核标准研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
罗荣  金曦  杨琦  汪金鹏  温春梅 《中国妇幼保健》2011,26(33):5125-5127
目的:制定适合民族地区的妇幼卫生工作绩效考核评估标准,推动民族地区妇幼卫生工作绩效考核工作。方法:通过文献回顾、现场调研、专家咨询、专家研讨等多种方法,制定民族地区的妇幼卫生工作绩效考核评估标准。结果:研究产出民族地区妇幼卫生工作绩效考核标准,包括一级指标5个,二级指标14个,三级指标38个,并在民族地区开展绩效考核工作。结论:通过绩效考核提高当地政府对妇幼卫生工作重要性的认识,促进当地妇幼卫生体系建设与发展,规范妇幼卫生服务的实施,提高少数民族妇幼卫生服务的可及性,促进妇幼卫生服务均等化。  相似文献
10.
四川省民族地区医疗急救体系现状调查与对策研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的:了解四川省民族地区医疗急救体系现状.方法:采用文献法、访谈法、问卷调查法等,调查至2008年底四川省60个民族及民族待遇县医疗急救机构的资源配置、能力建设与工作开展情况.结果:收回数据的52个民族及民族待遇县共有急救机构47个,民族地区医疗急救体系整体薄弱,机构覆盖不全,发展不平衡,基础设施薄弱,基本设备不齐全,服务能力偏低.建议:增加财政投入,完善州级中心,补足站点,强化设备,优化布局,加强人才队伍建设,建成三级紧急医疗救援网络体系,建立各系统间联动机制.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号