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1.
我国保健食品常用植物资源中植物甾醇含量研究   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
目的研究我国保健食品中使用频次较高的植物原料中植物甾醇含量,为今后植物原料的合理开发应用提供依据。方法在对我国目前保健食品原料使用频次分析的基础上,选择在保健食品中使用频次较高的药食两用植物30种、可用于保健食品的中药40种,按照本实验室建立的方法,用气相色谱法分析了这些植物原料中β-谷甾醇、菜油甾醇、豆甾醇、谷甾烷醇的含量,并计算总含量及各成分占总量的百分比。结果不同植物原料在保健食品中的使用频次不同,使用频次较多的如山楂为408次、黄芪为342次;所有被分析的样品中均检测到了植物甾醇,但不同植物原料中植物甾醇的含量差异很大,从总含量不足10mg/100g到高达380mg/100g,在各种"仁"、"子"的样品中植物甾醇的含量较高。大部分样品中含量最多的是β-谷甾醇。结论研究传统植物原料的功能成分,对合理开发中医药有重要意义;在某些中草药中,植物甾醇可能是其发挥作用的重要有效成分之一。  相似文献
2.
6种食用菌蛋白质与氨基酸的含量分析及评价   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
[目的]测定冬菇、姬松茸、干枞菌、云耳、银耳、岩耳6种食用菌的氨基酸含量,探讨6种食用菌的营养价值。[方法]通过测定蛋白质和氨基酸的含量,计算出必需氨基酸的比值并与人体必需氨基酸的要求模式比较来评价蛋白质质量。[结果]6种食用菌中氨基酸总和、必需氨基酸总和、蛋白质含量的排序一致,由大至小顺序是姬松茸、冬菇、干枞菌、云耳、银耳和岩耳,每种食用菌中,谷氨酸含量最高,天冬氨酸其次,含硫氨基酸含量低。与WHO/FAO评分模式比较,6种食用菌的必需氨基酸接近人体必需氨基酸的要求模式。[结论]6种食用菌蛋白质含量丰富,必需氨基酸基本齐全,必需氨基酸模式与人体必需氨基酸的要求模式接近,是质优蛋白质食品;6种食用菌蛋白质的赖氨酸、亮氨酸和苯丙+酪氨酸含量较为丰富,与其他食物搭配互补食用,可提高营养价值。  相似文献
3.
OBJECTIVE: To identify a critical appraisal tool for clinical practice guidelines that could serve as a basis for the development of an appraisal tool for clinical pathways. DESIGN: Systematic review of the literature and personal contacts. Databases searched were: Medline, Embase, and Cinahl. Search terms were: practice guidelines, appraisal, and evaluation. The items of the identified appraisal tools were examined and thematically grouped into 10 guideline dimensions. Content analysis and scoring of these domains by the appraisal tools was evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-four different appraisal tools of practice guidelines were identified. None scored the evidence base of the clinical content of guidelines. Four tools scored all the guideline dimensions. The Cluzeau instrument is the only one of these four that has been validated. Of the three instruments based on the Cluzeau instrument, the AGREE instrument is the only validated instrument that uses a numerical scale. CONCLUSIONS: Being a simplified version of the Cluzeau instrument, the AGREE instrument has the most potential to serve as a basis for the development of an appraisal tool for clinical pathways. However, important limitations will have to be dealt with when developing such a tool.  相似文献
4.
我国食品安全现状与风险来源:以餐饮业为例   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
从我国餐饮业食品安全现状出发,以2001—2012年媒体披露的300起餐饮消费食品安全事件为研究样本,利用内容分析法和描述性统计分析法,从食品安全事件的发生地域、发生季节、食品种类、责任主体、发生原因5个方面,对餐饮业食品安全风险来源进行了分析。结果显示:食品安全事件的发生具有一定的区域性、时间性特征,肉制品的质量、个体经营者和人员环境不卫生是主要的风险来源。根据分析结果,提出了加强我国餐饮服务监管能力建设,加大餐饮行业风险关键点监管力度,完善餐饮单位量化分级管理,创新餐饮服务监管模式等政策建议。  相似文献
5.
三种报纸健康文章的内容分析   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
目的 通过对报纸进行内容分析,了解其对健康信息的报道范围以及引用卫生研究结果的情况。方法以《人民日报》、《北京晚报》、《汇报》为研究对象,采用系统抽样的方法抽取2002年4、8、12月为样本。由经过培训的3名编码员对报纸进行编码。结果在275份报纸中共搜集到853篇健康相关章,每天健康章总数占总章数的平均比例,《北京晚报》、《人民日报》、《汇报》分别为0.039、0.016、0.026。健康章的类型以新闻为主,主要位于新闻版、健康版、科技版,绝大多数由记撰写,其主题以治疗保健为主,章的目的主要是提供一般的健康信息。全部健康章共利用了71次卫生研究结果,引用率为8.09%。结论《人民日报》、《汇报》、《北京晚报》的性质不同,在健康信息的报道上各有特色但普遍偏低,且报纸对卫生研究结果的利用不足。  相似文献
6.
50种常见食用植物药材及中草药植物中甾醇的含量研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
目的对中国常见的50种药食两用植物和中草药中的植物甾醇的量和分布进行分析。方法选择了目前保健食品原料中常用的药食两用植物18种和中草药32种,用气相色谱法分析了β-谷甾醇、菜油甾醇、豆甾醇、谷甾烷醇的含量,并计算各成分占总量的百分比。结果18种药食两用植物中,植物甾醇的总含量从14.8mg/100g(生姜)到208.3mg/100g(火麻仁),而测定的32种中草药中,植物甾醇总含量则从9.4mg/100g(川贝母)到280.3mg/100g(柏子仁),在各种"仁"、"子"的样品中植物甾醇的含量较高。大部分样品中含量最多的是β-谷甾醇;传统用来降血脂、利尿、抗炎的中草药中含有较高的植物甾醇。结论50种保健食品常用原料中均含有一定量的植物甾醇。  相似文献
7.
The expression of sexuality in best-selling novels and major motion pictures was examined. There are two reasons that such stimuli merit systematic analysis. First and foremost is the finding that best-selling novels and major motion pictures exist as a primary source of sexual information. Of equal importance, however, is the need to examine such stimuli for myths and fallacies. The novels and films analyzed in the present study were selected from the last years of three consecutive decades: 1959, 1969, and 1979. Inclusion in this study was based on ranking in either a best-seller list (i.e., books) or a rental-receipts list (i.e., movies). The use of such criteria serves the dual purpose of allowing for the examination of stimuli that are accessible to large masses of people and at the same time allowing for the examination of sexually relevant stimuli. The results are discussed in terms of historical changes (over the three decades) and manifest themes (i.e., general characteristics or consistent themes). An additional section was included to address the broader implications of the present findings and to suggest alternatives.This research was supported in part by Biomedical Research Funds and a President's Fellowship, both from the University of California, Los Angeles.  相似文献
8.
Literature and research on the question of the increasingly violent nature of pornography is reviewed. In addition, the paper reports the findings of a content analysis of all cartoons and pictures in Hustler Magazine from 1974 through 1987. Results indicate that sexually violent cartoons and/or pictorials constitute a relatively small proportion of the total cartoons and pictorials. Moreover, no monotonic increase was found in such depictions over the 14-year period examined. In fact, a relatively small and constant proportion of violent and/or sexually violent depictions over this period is reported. These findings are examined in relation to previous research and societal concern about alleged increases in violent pornography as an explanation for increases in rape rates.  相似文献
9.
Although the subjective nature of quality of life is generally accepted, less attention has been paid to the procedure of selecting domains to be explored with questionnaires. To explore what contributes to cancer patients' quality of life, a survey was conducted with the aim of identifying contents of quality of life using cancer patients as `experts'. A questionnaire with open-ended items aimed at exploring the meaning of quality of life and at determining the contents of health and not health related quality of life, was submitted to a sample of cancer patients stratified by residence, cancer site and stage of disease. The 248 questionnaires received were transcribed and broken down into phrases to allow coding. A content analysis was performed, using as a conceptual framework, the domains identified by the Italian Society of Psycho-Oncology. Overall, 43 domains and a list of symptoms were identified. The two most frequently reported symptoms were pain (21.4% patients) and fatigue (14.1% patients). Social relationships and psychological domains were heavily represented. Twenty sub-domains related to the domain `psychological well-being'. This study suggests that information on the content of quality of life questionnaires to be submitted to people affected by a specific disease, should be derived by studying people suffering the specific disease. These results reinforce the criticism that available quality of life instruments are more likely to reflect the perspective of health professionals than patients.  相似文献
10.
Objective: This study examined the meaning of sickle cell trait and sickle cell trait screening from the lay perspective of African Americans.

Design and Methods: African Americans (N?=?300), ages 18–35 and unaware of their sickle cell trait status, completed two open-ended questions from a larger survey. One question asked for their understanding of sickle cell trait; the other asked for their understanding of sickle cell trait screening. Content analysis occurred in two phases: (1) In vivo and holistic coding; and (2) focused coding.

Results: Four categories emerged illustrating lay conceptions of sickle cell trait; (1) Perceived as an illness; (2) Perceived recognition of the inheritance pattern of sickle cell trait; (3) Perceived lack of knowledge of sickle cell trait; and (4) Perceived importance of sickle cell trait. Five categories emerged illustrating lay conceptions for sickle cell trait screening: (1) Perceived recognition that screening means getting tested for sickle cell trait; (2) Perceived lack of knowledge of sickle cell trait screening; (3) Perceived health benefit of sickle cell trait screening; (4) Perceived importance of sickle cell trait screening; and (5) Perceived barriers to sickle cell trait screening.

Conclusions: Sickle cell trait and sickle cell trait screening are concepts that are both regarded as important among this high-risk population. However, there is still misunderstanding concerning the hereditary nature and reproductive implications of sickle cell trait. Interventions seeking to improve communication on the need for sickle cell trait screening should begin by identifying what the population at large understands, knows and/or believes to improve their ability to make informed health decisions.  相似文献

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